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UNITED STATES

SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION

Washington, D.C. 20549

_______________

Form 10-K

_______________

(Mark One)

þ

ANNUAL REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934

For the Fiscal Year Ended December 31, 2022

or

¨

TRANSITION REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934

For the transition period from _____ to _____

Commission File Number: 000-29959

Cassava Sciences, Inc.

(Exact name of registrant as specified in its charter)

Delaware

91-1911336

(State or other jurisdiction of

(I.R.S. Employer

incorporation or organization)

Identification Number)

6801 N. Capital of Texas Highway, Building 1; Suite 300, Austin, TX 78731

(512) 501-2444

(Address, including zip code, of registrant's principal executive offices and

telephone number, including area code)

Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act:

0

Title of each class

 

Trading

Symbol(s)

 

Name of each exchange on which registered

Common Stock, $0.001 par value

 

SAVA

 

NASDAQ Capital Market

Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(g) of the Act: None

Indicate by check mark if the registrant is a well-known seasoned issuer, as defined in Rule 405 of the Securities Act. Yes þ No ¨

Indicate by check mark if the registrant is not required to file reports pursuant to Section 13 or Section 15(d) of the Act. Yes ¨ No þ

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days. Yes þ No ¨

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically every Interactive Data File required to be submitted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T (§232.405 of this chapter) during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit such files). Yes þ No ¨.

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, smaller reporting company, or an emerging growth company. See the definitions of “large accelerated filer,” “accelerated filer,” “smaller reporting company,” and “emerging growth company” in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act. (Check one):

Large accelerated filer þ

Accelerated filer ¨

Non-accelerated filer ¨

Smaller reporting company ¨

Emerging growth company ¨

If an emerging growth company, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards provided pursuant to Section 13(a) of the Exchange Act. ¨

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has filed a report on and attestation to its management’s assessment of the effectiveness of its internal control over financial reporting under Section 404(b) of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act (15 USC. 7262(b)) by the registered public accounting firm that prepared or issued its audit report. þ

If securities are registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act, indicate by check mark whether the financial statements of the registrant included in the filing reflect the correction of an error to previously issued financial statements.  

Indicate by check mark whether any of those error corrections are restatements that required a recovery analysis of incentive-based compensation received by any of the registrant’s executive officers during the relevant recovery period pursuant to §240.10D-1(b)

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Act). Yes ¨ No þ

The aggregate market value of the voting and non-voting common equity held by non-affiliates was approximately $1.1 billion computed by reference to the last sales price of $28.12 as reported on the Nasdaq Capital Market, as of the last business day of the Registrant's most recently completed second fiscal quarter, June 30, 2022. The number of shares outstanding of the Registrant's common stock, par value $0.001 per share, on February 23, 2023 was 41,735,557.

DOCUMENTS INCORPORATED BY REFERENCE

1


Portions of the Registrant's proxy statement for its 2023 Annual Meeting of Stockholders (the “Proxy Statement”), to be filed with the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission, no later than 120 days after the Registrants fiscal year ended December 31, 2022, are incorporated by reference to Part III of this Annual Report on Form 10-K. 

 

2


CASSAVA SCIENCES, INC.

FORM 10-K

INDEX

Page

PART I

Item 1.

Business

5

Item 1A.

Risk Factors

34

Item 1B.

Unresolved Staff Comments

74

Item 2.

Properties

74

Item 3.

Legal Proceedings

74

Item 4.

Mine Safety Disclosures

75

PART II

Item 5.

Market for Registrant’s Common Equity, Related Stockholder Matters and Issuer Purchases of Equity Securities

75

Item 6.

[Reserved]

76

Item 7.

Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations

77

Item 7A.

Quantitative and Qualitative Disclosures About Market Risk

84

Item 8.

Consolidated financial Statements and Supplementary Data

84

Item 9.

Changes in and Disagreements with Accountants on Accounting and Financial Disclosure

105

Item 9A.

Controls and Procedures

105

Item 9B.

Other Information

108

Item 9C.

Disclosure Regarding Foreign Jurisdiction that Prevent Inspection

108

PART III

Item 10.

Directors and Executive Officers and Corporate Governance

108

Item 11.

Executive Compensation

109

Item 12.

Security Ownership of Certain Beneficial Owners and Management and Related Stockholder Matters

109

Item 13.

Certain Relationships and Related Transactions and Director Independence

110

Item 14.

Principal Accountant Fees and Services

110

PART IV

Item 15.

Exhibits and Consolidated Financial Statement Schedules

111

Item 16.

Form 10-K Summary

112

Signatures

 


 

3


PART I

FORWARD-LOOKING STATEMENTS

This Annual Report on Form 10-K and the documents incorporated by reference contain forward-looking statements within the meaning of the Private Securities Reform Act of 1995. All statements other than statements of historical facts contained in this Annual Report are forward-looking statements. We intend that such statements be protected by the safe harbor created thereby. Forward-looking statements relate to expectations, beliefs, projections, future plans and strategies, anticipated events or trends and similar expressions concerning matters that are not historical facts. In some cases, you can identify forward-looking statements by terms such as “anticipate,” “believe,” “could,” “estimate,” “expect,” “intend,” “may,” “plan,” “potential,” “should,” “will” and “would” or the negatives of these terms or other comparable terminology.

The forward-looking statements are based on our beliefs, assumptions and expectations of our future performance, taking into account all information currently available to us. Forward-looking statements involve risks and uncertainties and our actual results and the timing of events may differ significantly from the results discussed in the forward-looking statements. Such forward-looking statements and our business are subject to numerous risks and uncertainties that you should consider before investing in our Company. These risks are described more fully in the section titled “Risk Factors.” Accordingly, you should not rely upon forward-looking statements as predictions of future events. Examples of such forward-looking statements include, but are not limited to statements about:

 

the number of patients with Alzheimer’s disease we expect to enroll in our on-going Phase 3 studies, the enrollment rates for these studies, and the length of time to complete patient enrollment for our studies and the expected safety profile or treatment benefits of simufilam for people with Alzheimer’s disease;

our reliance on third-party contractors to conduct the clinical trials and make drug supply on a large-scale for our Phase 3 clinical program, or their ability to do so on-time or on-budget;

limitations around data interpretation from results of our long-term open-label study, as compared to efficacy results from a fully completed, randomized controlled study design;

the ability of clinical scales to assess cognition or health in our trials of Alzheimer’s disease;

any significant changes we may make, or anticipate making, to the design of any of our on-going studies of simufilam in patients with Alzheimer’s disease;

our ability to initiate, conduct or analyze additional clinical and non-clinical studies with our product candidates targeted at Alzheimer’s disease and other neurodegenerative diseases;

the impact of pre-clinical findings on our ability to develop our product candidates;

the interpretation of results from our pre-clinical or early clinical studies, such as Phase 1 and Phase 2 studies;

our plans to further develop SavaDx, our investigational blood-based diagnostic, and to evaluate a non-antibody approach for SavaDx;

our ability or willingness to expand therapeutic indications for simufilam outside of Alzheimer’s disease;

the safety, efficacy, or potential therapeutic benefits of our product candidates;

our ability to file for and obtain regulatory approval of our product candidates;

our strategy and ability to establish an infrastructure to commercialize any product candidates, if approved;

the potential future revenues of our product candidates, if approved and commercialized;

the market acceptance of our product candidates, if approved and commercialized;

the pricing and reimbursement of our product candidates, if approved and commercialized;

the utility of protection, or the sufficiency, of our intellectual property;

our potential competitors or competitive products for the treatment of Alzheimer’s disease;

our need to raise new capital from time to time to continue our operations or to expand our operations;

our use of multiple third-party vendors, including a Clinical Research Organization (CRO), to conduct clinical studies of our lead product candidate;

expectations regarding trade secrets, technological innovations, licensing agreements and outsourcing of certain business functions;

our expenses increasing by unanticipated amounts due to inflation;

fluctuations in our financial or operating results;

our operating losses, anticipated operating and capital expenditures and legal expenses;

expectations regarding the issuance of shares of common stock, options or other equity to employees or directors pursuant to equity compensation awards, net of employment taxes;

the development and maintenance of our internal information systems and infrastructure;

our need to hire additional personnel and our ability to attract and retain such personnel;

existing regulations and regulatory developments in the United States and other jurisdictions in which we operate;

 

4


 

our plans to expand the size and scope of our operations;

the sufficiency of our current resources to continue to fund our operations;

potential future agreements with third parties in connection with the commercialization of our product candidates;

the accuracy of our estimates regarding expenses, capital requirements, and needs for additional financing;

assumptions and estimates used for our disclosures regarding stock-based compensation;

the expense, timing and outcome of pending or future litigation or other legal proceedings and claims, including U.S. government inquiries; and

litigation, claims or other uncertainties that may arise from allegations made against us or our collaborators.

Drug development and commercialization involve a high degree of risk, and only a small number of research and development programs result in regulatory approval and subsequent commercialization of a product. Our clinical results from earlier-stage clinical trials may not be indicative of future results from later-stage or larger scale clinical trials and do not ensure regulatory approval. You should not place undue reliance on these statements or any scientific data we present or publish.

We cannot assure you that we will realize the results or developments we expect or anticipate or, even if substantially realized, that they will affect us or our operations in the way we expect. The forward-looking statements included in this Annual Report on Form 10-K are made only as of the date hereof. We undertake no obligation to publicly update or revise any forward-looking statement as a result of new information, future events or otherwise, except as required by law.

In addition, terms such as “we believe,” “may,” “anticipate,” “could,” “expect,” “would”, “forecast,” “intend,” “plan,” “possible,” “potential,” and other words and terms of similar meaning reflect our beliefs and opinions on the relevant subject at the time we use such words and terms. These statements are based upon information available to us as of the date of this report, and while we believe such information forms a reasonable basis for such statements, such information may be limited or incomplete, and our statements should not be read to indicate that we have conducted an exhaustive inquiry into, or review of, all potentially available relevant information. These statements are inherently uncertain and you are cautioned not to unduly rely upon these statements.

Our research programs in neurodegeneration have benefited from longstanding scientific and financial support from the National Institutes of Health (NIH). The contents of this Annual Report are solely our responsibility and do not represent any views of NIH, the Department of Health and Human Services, or the United States government.

Item 1.    Business

Overview

Cassava Sciences, Inc. is a clinical-stage biotechnology company based in Austin, Texas. Our mission is to detect and treat neurodegenerative diseases, such as Alzheimer’s disease. Our novel science is based on stabilizing – but not removing – a critical protein in the brain. Our lead therapeutic drug candidate, simufilam, is being evaluated for the proposed treatment of Alzheimer’s disease dementia in Phase 3 clinical studies.

Over the past 10 years, we have combined state-of-the-art technology with new insights in neurobiology to develop novel solutions for Alzheimer’s disease and other neurodegenerative diseases. Our strategy is to leverage our unique scientific/clinical platform to develop a first-in-class program for treating neurodegenerative diseases, such as Alzheimer’s.

We currently have two biopharmaceutical assets under development:

our lead therapeutic product candidate, called simufilam, is a novel oral treatment for Alzheimer’s disease dementia; and

our lead investigational diagnostic product candidate, called SavaDx, is a novel way to detect the presence of Alzheimer’s disease from a small sample of blood.

Our scientific approach for the treatment of Alzheimer’s disease seeks to simultaneously suppress both neurodegeneration and neuroinflammation. We believe our ability to improve multiple vital functions in the brain represents a new, different and crucial approach to address Alzheimer’s disease.

Our lead product candidate, simufilam, is a proprietary small molecule (oral) drug. Simufilam targets an altered form of a protein called filamin A (FLNA) in the Alzheimer’s brain. Published studies have demonstrated that the altered form of

 

5


FLNA causes neuronal dysfunction, neuronal degeneration and neuroinflammation. We are currently conducting a Phase 3 program with simufilam in patients with mild-to-moderate Alzheimer’s disease dementia.

We believe simufilam improves brain health by reverting altered FLNA back to its native, healthy conformation, thus countering the downstream toxic effects of altered FLNA. We have generated and published experimental and clinical evidence of improved brain health with simufilam. Importantly, simufilam is not dependent on clearing amyloid from the brain. Since simufilam has a unique mechanism of action, we believe its potential therapeutic effects may be additive or synergistic with those of other therapeutic candidates aiming to treat neurodegeneration.

Simufilam has demonstrated a multitude of treatment effects in animal models of disease, including normalizing neurotransmission, decreasing neuroinflammation, suppressing neurodegeneration, and restoring memory and cognition.

Phase 2a Study

In 2019, we completed a small, first-in-patient, clinical-proof-of-concept, open-label Phase 2a study of simufilam in the U.S., with substantial support from the National Institute on Aging (NIA), a division of the NIH. Treatment with simufilam for 28 days significantly improved certain key biomarkers of Alzheimer’s pathology, neurodegeneration and neuroinflammation (p<0.001). Biomarkers effects were seen in all patients in both cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and plasma.

Phase 2b Study

In September 2020, we announced final results of a Phase 2b study with simufilam in Alzheimer’s disease. In this clinical study funded by the NIH, Alzheimer’s patients treated with 50 mg or 100 mg of simufilam twice-daily for 28 days showed statistically significant (p<0.05) improvements in CSF biomarkers of disease pathology, neurodegeneration and neuroinflammation, versus Alzheimer’s patients who took placebo. In addition, Alzheimer’s patients treated with simufilam showed improvements in validated tests of episodic memory and spatial working memory, versus patients on placebo. Cognitive improvements correlated most strongly with decreases in levels of P-tau181, an exploratory ‘research use only’ non-safety related biomarker that suggests brain changes from Alzheimer’s disease.

Open-label Study Strategy

Much of the value of our open-label study is to support simufilam’s long-term safety profile in patients. We believe a well-designed, long-term, open-label study is an exercise in prudent risk-management. Clinical results serve as a tool to help inform and manage the inherent risks and uncertainties of drug development for undertaking a large, expensive Phase 3 clinical testing program.

Open-label Study Top-line Results

In March 2020, we initiated a long-term, open-label study to evaluate simufilam, our lead drug candidate, in patients with Alzheimer’s disease. This study was funded in part by a research grant award from NIH. The study was designed to evaluate the long-term safety and tolerability of simufilam 100 mg twice daily for 12 or more months. Another study objective was to assess exploratory efficacy endpoints, such as changes in cognition, and biomarkers.

In January 2023, we announced positive top-line Phase 2 results for our open-label study. The study enrolled over 200 patients with mild-to-moderate Alzheimer’s disease (MMSE 16-26). Endpoints were measured at baseline (study entry) and month 12.

Top-line Results – mean scores, baseline to month 12 (lower is better, except for MMSE):

ADAS-Cog11 scores changed from 19.1 (±9.2) to 19.6 (±13.3)

MMSE scores changed from 21.5 (±3.6) to 20.2 (±6.4)

NPI10 scores changed from 3.2 (±4.6) to 2.9 (±4.6)

GDS scores changed from 1.8 (±1.8) to 1.4 (±1.9)

Alzheimer’s is a degenerative disease of the brain. Over time, cognition progressively worsens in the mild-to-moderate stages of Alzheimer’s as the disease takes its toll. ADAS-Cog scores that change minimally (or improve) over 1 year is a highly desirable outcome in a clinical study of patients with mild-to-moderate Alzheimer’s disease.

 

6


Response Analysis – baseline to month 12

ADAS-Cog scores improved in 47% of patients; this group had a mean change of -4.7 (±3.8) points (lower is better).

In an additional 23% of patients, ADAS-Cog declined less than 5 points; this group had a mean change of 2.5 (±1.4) points.

Patients with an NPI10 score of zero increased from 42% to 54%, indicating reduced dementia-related neuropsychiatric symptoms after 1 year on simufilam.

Analysis of Efficacy Endpoints

Efficacy outcomes were analyzed by an independent, outside biostatistical consulting firm led by Suzanne Hendrix, PhD. The pre-specified primary efficacy endpoint was change in baseline on ADAS-Cog11, a cognitive scale widely used in Alzheimer’s clinical research. Exploratory endpoints included the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) to assess disease stage by cognitive impairment; the Neuropsychiatric Inventory (NPI10) to assess dementia related behavior; and the Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS). The Full Analysis Set (FAS) population (N=216) was used for the statistical analysis of efficacy endpoints.

Alzheimer’s is a progressive disease. Severity of disease is typically assessed by MMSE score. In this study, mild patients are MMSE 21-26; moderate patients are MMSE 16-20. Mild and moderate sub-groups showed notable differences on changes in ADAS-Cog mean scores, baseline to month 12 (lower is better):

In the mild sub-group, ADAS-Cog scores improved, from 15.0 (±6.3) to 12.6 (±7.8)

In the moderate sub-group, ADAS-Cog scores worsened, from 25.7 (±9.2) to 30.1 (±13.1)

We believe the improvement in ADAS-Cog over 1 year in mild patients taking simufilam is well outside the expected range of historic placebo decline rates from numerous other studies. Figure 1 presents a model of historical declines on ADAS-Cog in early disease (MCI + mild) and mild disease.

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Figure 1: Statistical model of simufilam versus historical 1-year placebo declines on ADAS-Cog in early disease and mild disease.1

Safety Data

Simufilam 100 mg twice daily was generally safe and well tolerated in this open-label study. There were no drug-related serious adverse events. Three treatment-emergent adverse events (TEAEs) occurred in 7% or more of study patients: COVID-19 (12%), urinary tract infection (10%) and headache (9%). Reported TEAEs are based on all study patients who received at least one dose of drug. The top three reasons for patient discontinuations were withdrawal of informed consent (N=14), adverse events (N=13) and patient non-compliance (N=7).

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1 Figure 1: Forest plot model by Pentara Corporation. Data was sourced from non-randomized studies (i.e., ADNI) and randomized, controlled trials conducted by other sponsors in patients with early (i.e., MCI + mild) and mild Alzheimer’s disease.

 

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Biomarker Data

Exploratory biomarkers were analyzed from cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) collected from 25 patients in the open-label study who agreed to undergo a lumbar puncture at baseline and again after 6 months of treatment. CSF samples were analyzed blind by our academic collaborator at City University of New York. All CSF biomarkers were ‘research use only’, non-safety-related exploratory biomarkers. We previously announced results of this bioanalysis in a press release dated July 29, 2021.

P-values shown below are baseline vs. 6-month levels by paired t-test:

CSF biomarkers of disease pathology, t-tau and p-tau181, decreased 38% and 18%, respectively (both p<0.00001)

CSF biomarkers of neurodegeneration, neurogranin and neurofilament light chain (NfL), decreased 72% and 55%, respectively (both p<0.00001)

CSF biomarkers of neuroinflammation, sTREM2 and YKL-40, decreased 65% and 44% (both p<0.00001)

Of the 25 patients who provided 6-month CSF samples, 24 subsequently completed 1 year of treatment with open-label simufilam. This sub-set of patients improved -4.96 mean points on ADAS-Cog from baseline to month 12 (lower is better; ad hoc analysis conducted internally). We have not conducted further CSF sample analyses in the open-label study.

Limitations of Open-label Study and Top-line Results

Data results from our open-label safety study do not constitute, and should not be interpreted as, regulatory evidence of safety or efficacy for simufilam in Alzheimer’s disease. Rigorous evidence for drug safety and efficacy is derived from one or more large, randomized, placebo-controlled studies. The open-label design and size of this study may introduce clinical or statistical bias or may generate results that may not fully distinguish between drug effects and random variation. Different methods of statistical analysis on clinical data from the same study may lead to objectively different numerical results. These and other statistical and clinical features of our open-label study add complexity or limitations to the scope of data interpretation. In addition, ‘top-line data’ is a summary of the clinical data prior to the completion of a full and final audit or quality-control of the clinical database. We communicated top-line data so that stakeholders had timely access to a summary of the study’s findings prior to us receiving the final dataset. Final data may change from initial top-line data.

 

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Cognition Maintenance Study

In May 2021, we initiated a Cognition Maintenance Study (CMS). The CMS is a randomized, withdrawal study design. ICH2 defines this type of study design as follows: “In a randomized withdrawal trial, subjects receiving a test treatment for a specified time are randomly assigned to continued treatment with the test treatment or to placebo (i.e., withdrawal of active therapy) …….. Any difference that emerges between the group receiving continued treatment and the group randomized to placebo would demonstrate the effect of the active treatment.

The CMS study design is intended to evaluate simufilam’s effects on cognition and health outcomes in Alzheimer’s patients who continue with drug treatment versus patients who discontinue drug treatment. It is a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled study of simufilam in patients with mild-to-moderate Alzheimer’s disease. Study patients are randomized (1:1) to simufilam or placebo for six months. To enroll in this study, patients must have previously completed 12 months or more of open-label treatment with simufilam. Figure 2.

Figure 2. Cognition Maintenance Study Design

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Patient enrollment for this study is closed. As of February 17, 2023, over 110 patients have completed this study. A small number of enrolled patients are still being treated in the randomized portion of this study. All randomized clinical data remain blinded. Our goal is to announce top-line clinical results for the CMS approximately third-quarter 2023.

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2 International Council for Harmonization of Technical Requirements for Pharmaceuticals for Human Use (ICH), Topic E10, Choice of Control Group in Clinical Trials.


 

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End-of-Phase 2 (EOP2) Meeting with FDA

In January 2021, we held an End-of-phase 2 (EOP2) meeting for simufilam with the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA). The purpose of this EOP2 meeting was to gain general agreement around key elements of a pivotal Phase 3 program to treat Alzheimer’s disease dementia. FDA attendees included Robert Temple, MD, Deputy Center Director for Clinical Science and Senior Advisor in the Office of New Drugs; Billy Dunn, MD, Director, Office of Neuroscience; Eric Bastings, MD, Director, Division of Neurology, and others.

In February 2021, we announced the successful completion of our EOP2 meeting. Official meeting minutes confirm that we and FDA are aligned on key elements of a Phase 3 clinical program for simufilam. FDA has agreed that the completed Phase 2 program, together with an ongoing and well-defined Phase 3 clinical program, are sufficient to show evidence of clinical efficacy for simufilam in Alzheimer’s disease. There is also agreement that the use of separate clinical scales to assess cognition (ADAS-cog1) and function (ADCS-ADL2) are appropriate co-primary endpoints of efficacy. A clinical scale that combines cognition and function, such as iADRS3, is a secondary efficacy endpoint, along with the NPI.

1 ADAS-Cog = The Alzheimer’s Disease Assessment Scale – Cognitive Subscale, a measure of cognition

2 ADCS-ADL = Alzheimer’s Disease Cooperative Study – Activities of Daily Living, a measure of health function

3iADRS = integrated Alzheimer’s Disease Rating Scale, a composite measure of cognition and health function


 

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Special Protocol Assessments

In August 2021, we announced we had reached agreement with FDA under a Special Protocol Assessment (SPA) for both Phase 3 studies. These SPA agreements document that FDA has reviewed and agreed upon the key design features of our Phase 3 study protocols of simufilam for the treatment of patients with Alzheimer’s disease.

An SPA agreement indicates concurrence by the FDA with the adequacy and acceptability of specific critical elements of overall protocol design (e.g., entry criteria, dose selection, endpoints, etc.). These elements are critical to ensure that our planned Phase 3 studies of simufilam in Alzheimer’s disease can be considered adequate and well-controlled studies in support of a future regulatory submission and marketing application.

The first clinical study protocol under the SPA is titled “A Phase 3, Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled, Parallel-Group, 52-Week Study Evaluating the Safety and Efficacy of One Dose of Simufilam in Subjects with Mild-to-Moderate Alzheimer’s Disease.”

The second clinical study protocol under the SPA is titled “A Phase 3, Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled, Parallel-Group, 76-Week Study Evaluating the Safety and Efficacy of Two Doses of Simufilam in Subjects with Mild-to-Moderate Alzheimer’s Disease.”

Phase 3 Drug Supply

We previously announced we have entered into a drug supply agreement with Evonik Industries AG for simufilam. Under the agreement, Evonik is expected to supply us with large-scale, clinical-grade quantities of simufilam. Evonik is one of the world’s largest contract development and manufacturing organizations for pharmaceutical ingredients. Other vendors supply excipients, the finished dosage form (i.e., simufilam tablets), drug packaging, package labeling and other critical steps in the supply chain for Phase 3 drug supply.

Phase 3 Clinical Program Overview

Our Phase 3 program consists of two large, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled studies of simufilam in patients with mild-to-moderate Alzheimer’s disease dementia. Highlights of this clinical program are summarized in Figure 3. In June 2021, we announced the selection of Premier Research International as our CRO to help conduct our Phase 3 clinical program.

Figure 3. Summary of Our Phase 3 Clinical Program

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RETHINK-ALZ and REFOCUS-ALZ

In Fall 2021, we announced initiation of our two Phase 3 studies of simufilam, respectively. As of February 28, 2023, a total of over 1,000 patients have been enrolled in our Phase 3 program. The target patient enrollment for the Phase 3 program is over 1,750 patients. We anticipate the completion of patient enrollment for both of our Phase 3 studies by yearend 2023. Patients continue to be screened in clinical trial sites in the U.S., Canada, Puerto Rico, Australia, and South Korea.

The first Phase 3 study, called RETHINK-ALZ, is designed to evaluate the safety and efficacy of oral simufilam 100 mg in enhancing cognition and slowing cognitive and functional decline over 52 weeks. Secondary objectives include the assessment of simufilam’s effect on neuropsychiatric symptoms and caregiver burden. This randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study plans to enroll approximately 750 patients with mild-to-moderate Alzheimer’s disease.

Details of the RETHINK-ALZ Phase 3 study include:

Approximately 750 patients with mild-to-moderate Alzheimer’s disease to be enrolled.

Patients to be randomized (1:1) to simufilam 100 mg or placebo twice daily.

 

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Patients to be treated for 12 months.

The co-primary efficacy endpoints are ADAS-Cog121, a cognitive scale, and ADCS-ADL2, a functional scale; both are standard clinical tools in trials of Alzheimer’s disease.

A secondary efficacy endpoint is iADRS3, a standard clinical tool in trials of Alzheimer’s disease that combines cognitive and functional scores from ADAS-Cog & ADCS-ADL.

Other secondary endpoints include plasma biomarkers of disease and NPI4, a clinical tool that assesses the presence and severity of dementia-related behavior.

In November 2021, we announced initiation of a second Phase 3 study, called REFOCUS-ALZ, designed to evaluate the safety and efficacy of oral simufilam 100 mg and 50 mg over 76 weeks. This randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study plans to enroll approximately 1,000 patients with mild-to-moderate Alzheimer’s disease.

Details of the REFOCUS-ALZ Phase 3 study include:

Approximately 1,000 patients with mild-to-moderate Alzheimer’s disease to be enrolled.

Patients to be randomized (1:1:1) to simufilam 100 mg, 50 mg, or placebo BID.

Patients to be treated for 76 weeks.

The co-primary efficacy endpoints are ADAS-Cog1, a cognitive scale, and ADCS-ADL2, a functional scale; both are widely used clinical tools in trials of Alzheimer’s disease.

A secondary efficacy endpoint is iADRS3, a widely used clinical tool in trials of Alzheimer’s disease that combines cognitive and functional scores from ADAS-Cog & ADCS-ADL.

Other secondary endpoints include CSF, plasma and imaging biomarkers of disease and NPI4, a clinical tool that assesses the presence and severity of dementia-related behavior.

Phase 3 Entry Criteria Includes a Plasma Assay for Phosphorylated Tau (p-Tau)

We believe plasma levels of pTau proteins can provide independent confirmation of Alzheimer’s neuropathology. RETHINK-ALZ and REFOCUS-ALZ studies use a ‘research use only’, non-safety related exploratory P-tau181 plasma assay to qualify mild-to-moderate Alzheimer’s patients. At the 15th International Conference on Clinical Trials on Alzheimer’s Disease (CTAD) 2022, a poster presentation indicated a 30 ng/L cut-point showed 100% sensitivity and 88% specificity for Alzheimer’s diagnostic in 22 autopsy-confirmed samples5. The plasma assay we use does not rely on age, APOE-gene status or complex algorithms to provide a result.

Open-label Extension Study for the Phase 3 Program

In October 2022, we announced the initiation of an open-label extension study for our Phase 3 program. This study is designed to provide no-cost access to simufilam for one year to Alzheimer’s patients who have successfully completed a Phase 3 study of simufilam.

The open-label extension study is expected to generate long-term safety and tolerability data for (oral) simufilam 100 mg twice daily over 52 weeks. There is no obligation for a patient or a physician to participate in the open-label extension study. Each clinical investigational site and each patient chooses whether to participate in this open-label extension study. Patient enrollment for this study began November 2022.

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1 ADAS-Cog = The Alzheimer’s Disease Assessment Scale – Cognitive Subscale, a measure of cognition

2 ADCS-ADL = Alzheimer’s Disease Cooperative Study – Activities of Daily Living, a measure of health function

3 iADRS = integrated Alzheimer’s Disease Rating Scale, a composite measure of cognition and health function

4 Neuropsychiatric Inventory (NPI)

5 Source: pTau181 Plasma Biomarker Performance as an Inclusion Criterion in the RETHINK-ALZ and REFOCUS-ALZ trials in mild-to-moderate Alzheimer’s disease, Mammel et al., CTAD 2022


 

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SavaDx

Our investigational product candidate, called SavaDx, is early-stage program focused on detecting the presence of Alzheimer’s disease from a small sample of blood. For business, technical and personnel reasons, we continue to prioritize the development of simufilam, our novel drug candidate, over SavaDx, our novel diagnostic candidate. SavaDx is a research-use only, non-safety related exploratory biomarker.

The regulatory pathway for SavaDx may eventually include formal analytical validation studies and clinical studies that support evidence of sensitivity, specificity and other variables in various healthy and diseased patient populations. We have not conducted such studies and do not expect to conduct such studies in 2023.

SavaDx is currently designed as an antibody-based detection system for altered filamin A (FLNA). Working with third parties, we are evaluating the exploratory use of mass spectrometry to detect FLNA, i.e., without the use of antibodies.

About Alzheimer’s Disease

Alzheimer’s disease is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder that affects cognition, function and behavior. As of 2021, there were approximately 55 million people worldwide living with dementia, a figure expected to increase to 139 million by 2050 according to outside sources. The annual global cost of dementia is now above $1 trillion, according to Alzheimer’s Disease International, a charitable organization.

Our Scientific Approach is Different

Over the last ten years, we have developed a new and promising scientific approach for the treatment and diagnosis of neurodegenerative diseases, such as Alzheimer’s disease. Importantly, we do not seek to clear amyloid out of the brain. Rather, we seek to stabilize a critical protein in the brain that has many downstream effects.

Our scientific approach is to treat neurodegeneration by targeting an altered form of a scaffold protein called FLNA. Through years of basic research, we and our academic collaborators identified FLNA as a structurally altered protein that enables both a neurodegeneration and a neuroinflammation pathway in the Alzheimer’s brain. We have shown that the altered form of FLNA is pervasive in the Alzheimer’s brain and undetectable in healthy control brains.

Using scientific insight and lab techniques, we believe we have elucidated this protein dysfunction. Through this work, we have produced experimental evidence that altered FLNA plays a critical role in Alzheimer’s disease. We engineered a family of high-affinity, small molecules to target this structurally altered protein and restore its normal shape and function. This family of small molecules, including our lead therapeutic candidate, simufilam, was designed in-house and characterized by our academic collaborators.

Our lead therapeutic product candidate, simufilam, is a small molecule (oral) drug with a novel mechanism of action. The target of simufilam is altered FLNA, the brain protein we seek to stabilize. Importantly, since simufilam has a unique mechanism of action, we believe its potential therapeutic effects may be additive or synergistic with those of other therapeutic candidates aiming to treat neurodegeneration. We are currently conducting a Phase 3 program with simufilam in patients with mild-to-moderate Alzheimer’s disease dementia.

Given the biopharmaceutical industry’s challenging track record in Alzheimer’s research, we believe there is an urgent need to consider innovative approaches to combat this disease. We believe our scientific approach may broaden the range of possible treatment approaches for this complex disease.

Our science is based on stabilizing a critical protein in the brain

Proteins are essential for cell function because they participate in virtually every biological process. If protein function is impaired, the health consequences can be devastating. Technological advances in medicine and improvements in lifestyle are making our lives longer. But with age, genetic mutations and other factors conspire against healthy cells, resulting in altered proteins. Sometimes a cell can rid itself of altered proteins. However, when disease changes the shape and function of critical proteins, multiple downstream processes are impaired. There are many clinical conditions in which proteins become structurally altered and impair the normal function of cells, tissues and organs, leading to disease. Conversely, restoring altered proteins back to health –called proteostasis – is a well-accepted therapeutic strategy in clinical medicine.

For over 100 years, scientists have ascribed various neurodegenerative diseases to proteins that misfold and are rendered pathological. In Alzheimer’s disease, certain proteins, such as amyloid and tau, lose their normal shape and function. Such misfolded proteins can break down or aggregate in clumps and form plaque or tangles in the brain. Destruction of neuronal

 

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synapses, accelerated nerve cell death, and dysfunction of the brain support cells, are all widely believed to be direct consequences of misfolded proteins.

FLNA is a scaffolding protein found in high levels in the brain. A healthy scaffolding protein brings multiple proteins together, coordinating their interaction. However, an altered form of FLNA protein is found in the Alzheimer’s brain. Our experimental evidence shows that altered FLNA protein contributes to Alzheimer’s disease by disrupting the normal function of neurons, leading to neurodegeneration and brain inflammation. Our product candidate, simufilam, aims to counter the altered and toxic form of FLNA in the brain, thus restoring the normal function of this critical protein. Our novel science is based on stabilizing – but not removing – a critical protein in the brain.

One drug, multiple effects

Simufilam binds to altered FLNA with very high (femtomolar) affinity. This drug effect restores the normal shape of FLNA and the normal function of key brain receptors, including: the alpha-7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor; the N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor; and the insulin receptor. These receptors have pivotal roles in brain cell survival, cognition and memory.

In animal models, treatment with simufilam resulted in dramatic improvements in brain health, such as reduced amyloid and tau deposits, improved receptor signaling and improved learning and memory. In addition, simufilam has another beneficial treatment effect of significantly reducing inflammatory cytokines in the brain. In animal models of disease, treatment with simufilam greatly reduced levels of IL-6 and suppressed TNF-alpha and IL-1beta levels by 86% and 80%, respectively, illustrating a powerful anti-neuroinflammatory effect.

By restoring function to multiple receptors and exerting powerful anti-inflammatory effects, we believe our approach has potential to slow the progression of neurodegeneration in patients. Thus, we have designed simufilam to slow, or potentially even reverse the deterioration of brain cells.

Our science is published in multiple peer-reviewed journals. In addition, our research has been supported by NIH under multiple research grant awards. Each grant was awarded following an in-depth, peer-reviewed evaluation of our approach for scientific and technical merit by a panel of outside experts in the field. Strong, long-term support from NIH has allowed us to advance our two product candidates for neurodegeneration, simufilam and SavaDx, into clinical development.

Currently marketed drug therapies for Alzheimer’s disease have limited therapeutic effect

We believe the FDA has not approved any new drugs for the treatment of Alzheimer’s disease since 2003 except as follows:

In June 2021, aducanumab (marketed as Aduhelm®) received marketing approval from FDA for the treatment of Alzheimer’s disease using the accelerated approval pathway “based on the drug’s effect on a surrogate endpoint that is reasonably likely to predict a clinical benefit to patients, with a required post-approval trial to verify that the drug provides the expected clinical benefit.” Aducanumab is delivered via monthly infusion. It is a proprietary drug of Biogen, Inc., a biopharmaceutical company. According to Biogen, the drug’s launch price was about $56,000 per patient per year in the U.S. In December 2021, Biogen reduced the price to about $28,200 per year. In May 2022, Biogen announced it was significantly scaling down infrastructure to produce Aduhelm in response to limited insurance coverage.

In January 2023, lecanemab (marketed as Leqembi®) received marketing approval from FDA for the treatment of Alzheimer’s disease using the accelerated approval pathway “based on the drug’s effect on a surrogate endpoint that is reasonably likely to predict a clinical benefit to patients”. Lecanemab is delivered via bi-weekly infusion. It is a proprietary drug of Eisai R&D Management Co., Ltd. and Biogen, Inc. According to Eisai, the drug’s launch price as of January 2023 is about $26,500 per patient per year in the U.S.

All FDA-approved anti-amyloid antibodies for Alzheimer’s disease currently lack Medicare coverage. In the United States, Medicare coverage is limited to drugs that are deemed to be “reasonable and necessary” for the treatment of disease, as determined by the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services (CMS), a federal agency. As of February 2023, the CMS has declined to provide Medicare coverage for FDA approved monoclonal antibodies directed against amyloid for the treatment of Alzheimer’s disease.


 

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Currently marketed drugs, called cholinesterase inhibitors, focus solely on treating symptoms, mostly in patients with mild-to-moderate Alzheimer's disease. The Alzheimer’s brain has low levels of a neurotransmitter called acetylcholine. Cholinesterase inhibitors prevent an enzyme in the brain, called acetylcholinesterase, from breaking down acetylcholine. Currently marketed cholinesterase inhibitors include donepezil (marketed by Eisai Co., Ltd. and Pfizer, Inc. as Aricept®), rivastigmine (marketed by Novartis AG as Exelon®) and galantamine (marketed by Janssen Pharmaceuticals, Inc. as Razadyne®). Cholinesterase inhibitors may benefit some patients for several months, after which the targeted brain receptors are desensitized, and drug efficacy is lost. Another approved medication for Alzheimer’s disease is memantine, a non-competitive antagonist of NMDA receptors (marketed by Lundbeck as Namenda®).

Simufilam is our Proprietary Drug Candidate for the Treatment of Alzheimer’s Disease.

We have generated and published experimental evidence of improved brain health by restoring altered FLNA with simufilam, our lead therapeutic product candidate. Simufilam is a proprietary small molecule (oral) drug that represents an entirely new scientific approach to treat neurodegeneration. Published studies have demonstrated that simufilam targets an altered form of a protein called FLNA that is pervasive in the Alzheimer’s brain. Altered FLNA causes neuronal dysfunction, neuronal degeneration and neuroinflammation. We believe our lead drug candidate, simufilam, improves brain health by reverting altered FLNA back to its native, healthy conformation, thus countering downstream toxic effects of altered FLNA. Importantly, simufilam is not dependent on clearing amyloid from the brain. From time-to-time, our scientific research includes the use of exploratory biomarkers, typically labelled ‘research-use only’. These are understood to mean investigational diagnostic products that are in the research phase of development and have not been proven to be effective or linked to a specific indication by the FDA.

The following is additional detail on simufilam’s drug development program.

IND submission to FDA

Over the past ten years, we successfully conducted basic research, in vitro studies and preclinical studies in support of an Investigational New Drug (IND) submission to FDA for simufilam, including requisite studies around safety pharmacology, toxicology, genotoxicity and bioanalytical methods. In 2017 we filed an IND with FDA for simufilam.

Clinical safety of simufilam in a Phase 1 study

Following FDA acceptance of our IND in 2017, we investigated the safety, dosing and pharmacokinetic profile of simufilam in healthy human volunteers. The design of our first-in-human Phase 1 study was based on regulatory feedback, clinical and scientific rationale and observations from previously conducted preclinical and in vitro studies.

In a Phase 1 study, simufilam was evaluated in 24 healthy human volunteers in a single site in the U.S. for safety, tolerability and pharmacokinetics. Study subjects were administered a single oral dose of 50, 100 or 200 mg of simufilam. Drug was well-tolerated in all subjects. Importantly, simufilam showed no treatment-related adverse effects and no dose-limiting safety findings. Pharmacokinetic measurements demonstrated that simufilam, a small molecule, was rapidly absorbed. Dose-proportionality was observed over the full dose range of 50 to 200 mg.

Mean PTI-125 Plasma Concentration Concentration (ng/mL) 0 500 100 1500 0 4 8 12 16 g 200 mg Time (

Given the absence of any observable dose-limiting effects in healthy adults in a Phase 1 study, a strong scientific rationale, and multiple peer-reviewed publications and research grant awards, we believe this program demonstrated favorable proof-of-principle for the development of simufilam in Alzheimer’s disease.

Phase 2a Clinical Study

In 2019, we completed a first-in-patient, clinical proof-of-concept study of simufilam in the U.S. Our Phase 2a was an open-label, multi-center, safety and pharmacokinetic study of simufilam. Thirteen (13) patients with mild-to-moderate Alzheimer’s disease, age 50-85, received 100 mg oral simufilam twice daily for 28 days. A diagnosis of Alzheimer’s disease was confirmed with Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) ≥ 16 and ≤ 24 and a cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) T-tau/Aβ42 ratio ≥ 0.30. Safety was assessed by ECGs, clinical labs, adverse event monitoring and physical examinations. CSF was drawn from patients before dosing started and again after 28 continuous days of dosing with simufilam. CSF samples were then analyzed for exploratory biomarkers of Alzheimer’s pathology (T-tau, P-tau, Aβ42); neurodegeneration (NfL, neurogranin); and neuroinflammation (YKL-40, IL-6, IL-1β and TNFα). All CSF biomarkers were ‘research use only’, non-safety related exploratory biomarkers. A consulting biostatistician conducted an independent analysis of the data set.

A key objective of our Phase 2a study was to measure levels of exploratory CSF biomarkers in the brain. Key results of this study include (Figure 4):

 

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Total tau (T-tau) decreased 20% (p<0.001)

Phosphorylated tau (P-tau) decreased 34% (p<0.0001)

Neurofilament light chain (NfL), a marker for neurodegeneration, decreased 22% (p<0.0001)

Neurogranin, a marker for cognitive decline, decreased 32% (p<0.0001)

Neuroinflammatory marker YKL-40, an indicator of microglial activation, decreased 9% (p<0.0001)

Proinflammatory Interleukin 6 (IL-6) decreased 14% (p<0.0001)

Proinflammatory Interleukin 1 beta (IL-1β) decreased 11% (p<0.0001)

Proinflammatory Tumor Necrosis Factor alpha (TNFα) decreased 5% (p<0.001)

The ratio of CSF P-tau to Aβ42, a widely accepted biochemical value of Alzheimer’s disease, improved in all patients (p<0.001)

Figure 4: Simufilam Treatment Reduces Levels of Exploratory CSF Biomarkers in Patients with Alzheimer’s in a Phase 2a Study.

Neurogranin*

NfL*

T-tau+

P-tau181*

YKL40*

IL-6*

IL-1β*

TNFα+

Picture 5

Neurogranin* NfL* T-tau+ P-tau181* YKL40* IL-6* IL-1β* TNFα+ -32% -22% -20% -34% -9% -14% -11% -5%

Percent change from baseline in CSF biomarkers measured by ELISA. Eight CSF biomarkers of disease in Alzheimer’s patients were significantly reduced with simufilam treatment. *p < 0.0001, +p < 0.001 in paired t test comparing Day 28 to pre-dose baseline.

Consistent with over 10 years of basic research and preclinical data, we believe our Phase 2a study showed clinical evidence of simufilam’s mechanism of action and drug-target engagement, including:

Improvements in biomarkers of Alzheimer’s disease in CSF, plasma and lymphocytes;

Consistency across biomarker improvements in CSF, plasma, and lymphocytes;

Significant reductions (p<0.01) in both nitrated and phosphorylated forms of tau protein;

Evidence that each individual patient showed biomarker responses to simufilam;

Evidence that simufilam reversed the shape of altered filamin A in lymphocytes;

Evidence that simufilam reduced levels of amyloid bound to alpha 7 nicotinic receptors in lymphocytes; and

Early clinical validation of the drug target – altered filamin A – as a facilitator protein between amyloid beta and both neuroinflammation and tau pathology.

Phase 2b Clinical Study

In March 2020, we announced the completion of a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, multi-center clinical study of simufilam. Sixty-four patients with mild-to-moderate Alzheimer’s disease, age 50-85, were randomized (1:1:1) to 100 mg or 50 mg oral simufilam or matching placebo. Treatment was administered twice daily for 28 days. Nine U.S. study sites enrolled patients. A clinical diagnosis was confirmed with the MMSE ≥16 and ≤26 and a CSF T-tau/Aβ42 ratio ≥0.28. Safety was assessed by ECGs, clinical labs, adverse event monitoring and physical examinations. This study was substantially funded by a research grant award from NIH.

 

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The Phase 2b clinical study was designed to evaluate safety, tolerability and drug effects of simufilam on exploratory biomarkers of Alzheimer’s disease. The primary endpoint was improvement in biomarkers of Alzheimer’s disease from baseline to Day 28. CSF was drawn from patients before dosing started and again after 28 continuous days of dosing with simufilam. CSF samples were then analyzed for biomarkers of Alzheimer’s pathology (T-tau, P-tau, Aβ42); neurodegeneration (NfL, neurogranin); and neuroinflammation (YKL-40, IL-6, sTREM2, HMGB1) and BBB integrity (IgG, albumin). All CSF biomarkers were ‘research use only’, non-safety related exploratory biomarkers. A consulting biostatistician conducted an independent analysis of the data set.

In May 2020, we announced that an outside lab with whom we had no prior work experience conducted a bioanalysis of CSF samples from our Phase 2b study. The data set from this initial bioanalysis showed unnaturally high variability and other problems. Overall, we believe data from the initial bioanalysis can be interpreted as anomalous and highly improbable. With its validity in question, we believe the initial bioanalysis serves no useful purpose. Backup CSF samples were subsequently sent to City University of New York for bioanalysis. All bioanalyses were conducted under blinded conditions to eliminate any possibility of bias.



In September 2020, we reported final positive Phase 2b clinical study results. Simufilam was safe and well-tolerated in this study. Simufilam significantly (P<0.05) improved an entire panel of biomarkers of disease in patients with Alzheimer’s disease compared to a placebo group. In addition, Alzheimer’s patients treated with simufilam showed directional improvements in validated tests of episodic memory and spatial working memory, versus patients on placebo. Cognitive improvements correlated most strongly (R=0.5) with decreases in levels of P-tau181 in CSF. The study achieved a 98% response rate, defined as the proportion of study participants taking simufilam who showed improvements in biomarkers. Importantly, we believe these data are consistent with prior clinical and preclinical results, the drug’s mechanism of action and over 10 years of basic research.

To our knowledge, no drug candidate has demonstrated the ability to reduce an entire panel of biomarkers of disease in patients with Alzheimer’s disease. For this reason, clinical data generated in our Phase 2a and Phase 2b studies may not be directly comparable to results generated by our competitors.

Key exploratory biomarker results include the following (all p-values versus placebo) (Figure 5):

 

Core markers of Alzheimer’s pathology are total tau (T-tau), phosphorylated tau (P-tau181), and amyloid beta42 (Aβ42). In Alzheimer’s, tau and P-tau levels are elevated and Aβ42 is low.

oT-tau decreased 15% (p<0.01) for patients in the 50 mg drug group.

oT-tau decreased 18% (p<0.01) for patients in the 100 mg drug group.

oP-tau decreased 8% (p<0.01) for patients in the 50 mg drug group.

oP-tau decreased 11% (p<0.01) for patients in the 100 mg drug group.

o42 increased 17% (p<0.01) for patients in the 50 mg drug group.

o42 increased 14% (p<0.01) for patients in the 100 mg drug group.

Elevated CSF levels of two proteins, Neurogranin (Ng) and Neurofilament Light Chain (NfL) indicate neurodegeneration.

oNg decreased 36% (p<0.01) for patients in the 50 mg drug group.

oNg decreased 43% (p<0.01) for patients in the 100 mg drug group.

oNfL decreased 28% (p<0.05) for patients in the 50 mg drug group.

oNfL decreased 34% (p<0.01) for patients in the 100 mg drug group.

Proinflammatory IL-6 (Interleukin 6) is produced in response to tissue stress and injury.

oIL-6 decreased 10% (p<0.01) for patients in the 50 mg drug group.

oIL-6 decreased 11% (p<0.01) for patients in the 100 mg drug group.

Elevated levels of neuroinflammatory marker YKL-40 indicate microglial activation.

oYKL-40 decreased 10% (p<0.01) for patients in the 50 mg drug group.

oYKL-40 decreased 12% (p<0.01) for patients in the 100 mg drug group.

sTREM2 is a neuroinflammation biomarker that has commanded substantial recent attention from researchers for its role in Alzheimer’s disease and frontotemporal dementia.

osTREM2 decreased 43% (p<0.01) for patients in the 50 mg drug group.

 

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osTREM2 decreased 46% (P<0.01) for patients in the 100 mg drug group.

Simufilam Significantly Reduced Levels of HMGB1 in CSF.

oHMGB1 decreased 33% (p<0.01) in patients treated with 50 mg simufilam

oHMGB1 decreased 32% (p<0.01) in patients treated with 100 mg simufilam

Simufilam Significantly Improved the Integrity of the Blood-brain Barrier (BBB).

oCSF IgG decreased 30% (p<0.05) in patients treated with 50 mg simufilam

oCSF IgG decreased 30% (p<0.05) in patients treated with 100 mg simufilam

oCSF albumin decreased 15% (p<0.05) in patients treated with 50 mg simufilam

oCSF albumin decreased 28% (p<0.05) in patients treated with 100 mg simufilam

Simufilam Improved the Albumin Ratio, a Test of Blood-brain Barrier (BBB) Permeability:

oBBB permeability can be clinically evaluated by comparing levels of albumin in CSF and plasma. The albumin ratio is a test for BBB permeability because albumin protein is not synthesized in CSF. Hence, albumin in CSF necessarily comes from plasma through the BBB. The albumin ratio is frequently elevated in patients with dementia and various other disorders.

oIn the Phase 2b study, the albumin ratio was unchanged for Alzheimer’s patients on placebo. The albumin ratio improved by approximately 5 and 7 points for patients treated with simufilam, 50 mg and 100 mg, respectively, over 28 days.

Changes in the Albumin Ratio by Treatment Group

Treatment

Day 0

Day 28

Change-Day 0 to 28

Placebo

24

24

No change

50 mg simufilam

25

20

- 20%

100 mg simufilam

25

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- 28%

Figure 5. Simufilam Improved Levels of Exploratory CSF Biomarkers in Patients with Alzheimer’s in a Phase 2b Study.

Picture 1

% Change Baseline to Day 28 -55% -45% -35% -25% -15% -5% 5% 15% 25% A42 T-tau P-tau181 Nurogranin NfL YKL-40 IL-6 sTREM2 HMGB1 Albumin IgG Placebo 50 mg 100 mg +p < 0.05 p < 0.01, # p < 0.001, p < 0.0001 vs. placebo

 

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Figure 6. Study Response Rate, Defined as the Proportion of Study Participants Taking Simufilam Who Showed Improvements in Biomarkers.

Picture 2

% of Patients Who Responded to Simufilam on CSF Biomarkets Tau/p- Tau Biomarkers 98% Biomarkers of Neuroinflammation 98% Biomarkers of Neurodegeneration 98% Biomarkers of BBB Integrity 95% 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80% 90% 100%

A further objective of this study was to measure drug effects on cognition. Patients were tested at baseline and again on Day 28. Changes in episodic memory and spatial working memory were assessed on CANTAB, a validated, computer-based battery of tests. CANTAB is designed to measure cognitive skills regardless of the subject’s language skills, speed, gender or education.

Only directional trends were observed in memory improvements, due to limitations around study size (N=64). The final data analysis shown in Figure 7 excludes three patients who we subsequently learned showed no detectable level of simufilam in plasma and two patients who missed 25% or more of their doses by pill counts. In addition, outlier subjects with the most and fewest errors (by baseline score cutoffs) were removed from the final analysis of episodic memory (Figure 7):

Alzheimer’s patients in both drug groups showed directional improvements on tests of episodic memory and spatial memory after 28 days of treatment, versus patients on placebo.

Episodic memory improved by -5.7 (lower score is better) for Alzheimer’s patients in the 50 mg drug group, versus -1.5 for patients on placebo.

Episodic memory improved by -4.5 (lower score is better) for Alzheimer’s patients in the 100 mg drug group, versus -1.5 for patients on placebo.

Spatial memory improved by -2.31 (lower score is better) for Alzheimer’s patients in the 50 mg drug group, versus -0.4 for patients on placebo.

Spatial memory improved by -3.35 (lower score is better) for Alzheimer’s patients in the 100 mg drug group, versus -0.4 for patients on placebo.

Improvements in cognition correlated most strongly (statistical R=0.5) with decreases in CSF P-tau181, a biomarker that, when elevated, leads to tangles in the brain. Simufilam decreased brain levels of Ptau-181 by 8-11%, versus placebo.

 

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Figure 7. Episodic Memory and Spatial Working Memory Improvements

Picture 11

Change in Errors Baseline to Day 28 -6.0 -5.0 -4.0 -3.0 -2.0 -1.0 0.0 Placebo -1.5 50 mg -5.7 100 mg -4.5 37% Effect Size 2% Effect Size -3.5 -3.0 -2.5 -2.0 -1.5 -1.0 -0.5 0.0 Placebo -0.41 50 mg -1.65 100 mg -3.33

SavaDx

Our investigational diagnostic product candidate, called SavaDx, is an early-stage program focused on detecting the presence of Alzheimer’s disease from a small sample of blood. For business, technical and personnel reasons, we continue to prioritize the development of simufilam, our novel drug candidate, over SavaDx, our novel diagnostic candidate. SavaDx is currently a ‘research use only’, non-safety related exploratory biomarker.

The regulatory pathway for SavaDx may eventually include formal analytical validation studies and clinical studies that support evidence of sensitivity, specificity and other variables in various healthy and diseased patient populations. We have not conducted such studies and do not expect to conduct such studies in 2023.

SavaDx is currently designed as an antibody-based detection system for altered filamin A (FLNA). Working with third parties, we are evaluating the use of mass spectrometry to detect FLNA, i.e., without the use of antibodies.

Over the past ten years, we discovered that altered FLNA is a hallmark feature of brain pathology in patients with Alzheimer’s disease. We believe SavaDx may reveal early traces of the disease, potentially even before the overt appearance of disease symptoms, such as memory loss.

A diagnostic test usually measures one or more biomarkers, which are biological indicators of disease. A deep understanding of the biology of disease is required to identify and develop a diagnostic. A valid diagnostic has certain baseline characteristics to be functional and useful for clinical practice. It must detect disease in patients and, conversely, not detect disease in healthy subjects; and it is preferably quantitative, giving some indication of severity or stage of disease. Collectively, the ability to selectively detect disease indicators can be useful to provide diagnostic information (i.e., detect the disease) or prognostic information (i.e., predict the disease or its future course).

Currently, the most definitive method to diagnose Alzheimer’s disease is through autopsy after death, which is not particularly helpful. Methods to detect Alzheimer’s disease during its course can be expensive, invasive, subjective, risky and/or uncomfortable. Importantly, because of the expense and invasiveness of current tests, most people are not tested until they show obvious cognitive decline.

Current approaches for diagnosing Alzheimer’s disease include measurement of amyloid-β (specifically, Aβ42), total tau (T-tau) or phosphorylated tau (P-tau) levels in CSF or plasma; structural neuroimaging techniques, including magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) or computerized tomography (CT); positron-emission tomography (PET) imaging of brain amyloid (AmyVid®); and batteries of cognitive tests. Usually, a combination of more than one test is necessary to provide a working diagnosis. When such tests and techniques are used together, the totality of data can be sensitive and specific for the detection of Alzheimer’s disease. In practice, however, such tests and techniques are only used after overt symptoms of impaired memory.

 

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We believe there is a profound need for a blood-based diagnostic test for Alzheimer’s disease. A quick, simple, inexpensive test may benefit the medical community in many ways. Advantages may include confirming the presence of Alzheimer’s disease earlier, when lifestyle changes and potential therapeutics may have the most impact, or conversely, to rule out Alzheimer’s disease at such early stages. Other potential benefits include discriminating Alzheimer’s disease from other causes of dementias; helping to identify stage of Alzheimer’s disease; selection and enrollment of appropriate patients into clinical studies of experimental product candidates; and better alignment of a patient’s specific diagnosis with a targeted therapeutic.

It is widely accepted that in Alzheimer’s disease, pathological changes in the brain occur at least 10-15 years before clinical symptoms appear. These “pre-symptomatic” changes include deposits of certain misfolded or impaired proteins in the brain. Our long-term goal with SavaDx is to identify people with Alzheimer’s disease, potentially long before clinical symptoms occur. Early detection may be critical for any intervention to cease – or at least slow down – brain damage before it is too late. Importantly, a non-invasive screen for latent Alzheimer’s disease prior to overt symptoms could be conducted as a general health screen, not just in patients at risk by family history or in patients already showing cognitive impairment. Once a disease-modifying treatment is found, early detection is likely to be critically important. Early detection and treatment may also be critical in identifying such a disease-modifying treatment, as many believe one reason for clinical study failures in Alzheimer’s disease is that treatment has routinely started too late in the course of disease to make any impact.

Moreover, with repeat measurements over time, SavaDx may provide a probability of cognitive decline or disease progression. Even if SavaDx does not provide a precise numerical cutoff value for Alzheimer’s disease, we believe it may be important to incorporate data from SavaDx into the overall diagnostic framework for neurodegeneration, and Alzheimer’s disease in particular. As with any diagnosis of disease, some people may embrace a way to detect Alzheimer’s disease long before clinical symptoms appear, while others may prefer not to know – at least until a treatment is found.

Diagnostic development program.

Diagnostic development differs from drug development in many important ways. As a result, diagnostic development requires substantial differences in planning, study design and study execution.

Some of the ways that diagnostic development differs from drug development include the following:

We may need to choose among a wider range of regulatory pathways for approval of SavaDx, depending on factors such as intended use and user, test type and complexity and role in patient-care decisions;

Drug studies usually deal primarily with one office within FDA, but the regulatory pathway for SavaDx may require us to consider the policies of multiple federal or state regulatory agencies and offices;

Unlike drug programs, statistical analysis with SavaDx does not focus on efficacy and safety endpoints. Rather, study endpoints for SavaDx will focus on sensitivity (true positives), specificity (true negatives), positive predictive value (percentage of correct positive diagnoses of known positive cases) and negative predictive value (percentage of correct negative diagnoses of known negative cases).

SavaDx is an investigational diagnostic product candidate that has not yet been reviewed by FDA. Clinical testing consists of collecting blood samples on a limited scale to test and validate SavaDx using antibodies. Our ability to test such samples depends on multiple factors, many of which are beyond our control. For example, optimal sample collection depends on risk of sample degradation, storage requirements to preserve samples, cost of sample storage and actual vs. predicted time of assay validation.

We have conducted four early validation tests using SavaDx. In three blinded studies of test samples, SavaDx detected more than a 10-fold separation between Alzheimer’s patients and normal healthy control subjects (N=232 test samples). In these three proof-of-concept studies, SavaDx demonstrated nearly 100% accuracy and specificity. The three studies deployed a research grade antibody manufactured by an outside vendor.

A fourth blinded study of SavaDx failed to generate meaningful diagnostic data. We believe the fourth study deployed a faulty research antibody sourced from an outside vendor. Commercially available research antibodies can present certain technical flaws, such as improper validation, significant batch-to-batch variations or inconsistent storage, any of which can jeopardize results of studies and experiments. For these reasons, and in order to increase consistency of quality, reliability and availability, we have attempted to develop and validate a proprietary, fit-for-purpose, monoclonal antibody system for use with SavaDx. This effort remains a work-in-progress.

 

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In July 2021, we announced positive clinical data with SavaDx when used to measure plasma levels of altered filamin A before and after simufilam treatment in patients with Alzheimer’s disease. In a Phase 2b randomized, controlled trial sponsored by the National Institutes of Health (NIH), simufilam significantly reduced a plasma marker of altered filamin A in Alzheimer’s patients treated for 28 days. Plasma levels of p-tau181 also dropped significantly in these same patients.

The legal system for intellectual property around diagnostic methods is highly complex and uncertain. In the U.S., patent courts have struggled to define a clear means of patent eligibility for modern age diagnostics. Generally, a simple process involving correlations between blood test results and patient health is not eligible for patent claims because such processes incorporate “laws of nature”. However, different outcomes from different courts, including Federal Circuit, district court and Patent Trial and Appeal Board decisions, have continued to create a sometimes vague or conflicting legal framework for determining the eligibility of patent claims for diagnostic methods. As a result, we cannot be certain how SavaDx fits into the current U.S. legal framework for obtaining effective patent claims. Furthermore, claims for diagnostic methods can be complicated to enforce.

We currently have no issued patents in the United States with respect to SavaDx.

Expansion of our science to other indications.

It is well known that protein misfolds occur in a wide variety of biological processes and diseases. We may leverage our scientific insights in neurodegeneration and neuroinflammation and advanced tools in molecular biology, biochemistry, and imaging to expand our science to other diseases. New indications and new drug development approaches may complement our initial focus on Alzheimer’s disease.

Preclinical programs are always visionary, sometimes innovative and often of high biomedical potential. However, by definition, such programs are exploratory and risky. Moreover, most preclinical programs fail for scientific or other reasons, regardless of the amount of effort or resources that are brought to bear upon such programs. For these reasons, in general we do not intend to disclose our preclinical programs until such time as they become material to our pipeline of product candidates.

We own worldwide rights to our neurodegeneration program.

We own intellectual property, including patents, patent applications, technology, trade secrets and know-how in the U.S. and other countries. The protection of patents, designs, trademarks and other proprietary rights that we own or license is critical to our success and competitive position. We consider the overall protection of our patents and other intellectual property rights to be of material value and act to protect these rights from infringement.

We seek to protect our technology by, among other methods, filing and prosecuting U.S. and foreign patents and patent applications with respect to our technology and products and their uses. The focus of our patent strategy is to secure and maintain intellectual property rights to technology for our program in neurodegeneration.

Simufilam was discovered and designed in-house and was characterized by our academic collaborators during research activities that were conducted from approximately 2008 to date. SavaDx is being developed in-house with outside collaborators. We own exclusive, worldwide rights to drug and diagnostic assets and related technologies, without royalty obligations to any third party. Our patent protection with respect to simufilam and use of simufilam for Alzheimer’s disease and other neurodegenerative diseases currently runs through 2039 and includes seven issued U.S. patents. In addition, we have patent protection with respect to simufilam for use in treating certain cancers that runs through 2034. Our patent estate further includes patents and patent applications for related compounds and treatments. Corresponding foreign filings have been made for each of the U.S. filings.

Our Development Team

Our product development team is led by seasoned professionals with a proven track record of innovation in drug discovery and development, as well as substantial business expertise.

Our Founder and Chief Executive Officer, Remi Barbier, has over 25 years of biopharmaceutical industry experience and has led teams responsible for pioneering several pharmaceutical innovations, including abuse-deterrent drugs; the clinical development of multiple pain drugs; an innovative antibody program in cancer; and other programs in neuroscience and other therapeutics areas. Before founding Cassava Sciences, he held leadership roles and was founder or co-founder of four life science companies, three of which are now publicly traded or acquired.

 

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Our Chief Medical Officer, James Kupiec, MD, has two prior FDA drug approvals and previously served at Pfizer, Inc. as VP, Global Clinical Leader for Parkinson’s Disease and Clinical Head of the Neuroscience Research Unit. Dr. Kupiec also held leadership roles at Sanofi and Ciba-Geigy Pharmaceuticals and before that was a practicing neurologist.

Lindsay Burns, PhD, SVP, Neuroscience, worked on the development of several product candidates in neuroscience and other therapeutics areas while at Neurex (acquired by Elan Pharmaceuticals) and Abgenix (acquired by Amgen).

Michael Zamloot, SVP of Technology Operations, has four prior FDA drug approvals and has worked in drug operations and supply chain management at Boehringer Mannheim (acquired by Roche Diagnostics), Athena Neuroscience (acquired by Elan Pharmaceuticals) and Ciba-Geigy (acquired by Novartis).

Michael Marsman, PharmD, SVP of Regulatory Affairs previously held senior positions at Impax Laboratories, Millennium Pharmaceuticals, and Syntex, where he had shared responsibility for the regulatory approval of several high-profile drugs. He also previously led regulatory affairs for our Company for nearly a decade until 2019.

George (Ben) Thornton, PhD, SVP of Technology, has led research and development teams at Johnson & Johnson as well as translated basic science to the clinical setting at biotechnology start-ups such as GeneMedicine and Apovia.

Our management team is further supported by scientific advisors who are leading experts in the field and share our commitment to advancing new treatments for neurodegenerative diseases, including Alzheimer’s disease.

Our Strategy

Our goal is to develop product candidates to diagnose and treat neurodegeneration, such as Alzheimer’s disease. Key elements of our business strategy to achieve this mission include:

building a lean company that is narrowly focused on developing innovative product candidates for Alzheimer’s disease and other areas of neurodegeneration;

validating our unique scientific approach with competitive research grants and publishing our scientific data in peer-reviewed journals;

applying our development capabilities to advance our product candidates through clinical proof-of-concept studies and beyond;

using our expertise and experience to continue to focus on discovering new indications and product candidates, validated by experimental evidence and leading experts in the field; and

continuing to outsource preclinical studies, clinical studies and formulation development activities in order to allow more efficient deployment of our resources

We also conduct basic research and development in collaboration with academic and other partners. Our research and development expenses were $68.0 million, $24.8 million and $3.1 million for the year ended December 31, 2022, 2021 and 2020, respectively. These amounts are net of significant reimbursement received from NIH. See “Item 7. Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations” for additional details regarding our research and development activities.

Competition

The drug discovery and development industry is characterized by rapidly advancing technologies, intense competition and a strong emphasis on proprietary products. We face potential competition from many different sources, including pharmaceutical and biotechnology companies, academic institutions, governmental agencies, and public and private research institutions. Any product candidates that we successfully develop and commercialize, such as simufilam or SavaDx, may compete with existing therapies and new therapies that may become available in the future.

Historically, the drug industry has attempted to treat Alzheimer’s disease by developing drugs that block the synthesis of, or remove or dis-aggregate, beta amyloid and, more recently, another protein in the brain called tau. Essentially, the prevailing doctrine says amyloid (or tau) must be cleared out of the brain. This scientific approach – known as the amyloid hypothesis - has been repeatedly tested by our competitors in late-stage clinical studies using a variety of antibody backbones, epitopes, target conformations, biomarkers and in various stages of disease. More recent competitors in Alzheimer’s research

 

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are focused on modulating proteins in the brain that have anti-inflammatory or other properties, an approach known as immunotherapy.

In contrast, our scientific approach seeks to simultaneously improve neurodegeneration and neuroinflammation. We believe improving multiple vital functions in the brain represents a new, different and crucial approach to address Alzheimer’s disease.

Regardless of scientific approach, improvement in both cognition and health function remains a key criterion for a new drug in Alzheimer’s disease to receive full, unconditional marketing approval from the FDA, a hurdle which, to date, no drug candidate has met with clear and compelling clinical data in nearly two decades.

Our competitors may have significantly greater financial resources, an established presence in the market, expertise in research and development, manufacturing, preclinical and clinical testing, obtaining regulatory approvals and reimbursement and marketing-approved products. These competitors compete with us in recruiting and retaining qualified scientific and technical personnel, establishing clinical study sites and patient registration for clinical studies, as well as in acquiring or developing technologies complementary to, or necessary for, our programs. Smaller or early-stage companies may also prove to be significant competitors, particularly through collaborative arrangements with large and established companies.

The key competitive factors affecting the success of simufilam, and any other product candidates that we develop to address neurodegenerative disorders, if approved, are likely to be their efficacy, safety, convenience, price, the level of generic competition, patient and physician acceptance and the availability of reimbursement from government and other third-party payors. Our commercial opportunity could be reduced or eliminated if our competitors develop and commercialize products that are more effective, have fewer or less severe side effects, are more convenient or are less expensive than products that we may develop.

Our competitors also may obtain FDA approval for their products more rapidly than we may obtain approval for ours. For example, in June 2021, the FDA approved aducanumab (human monoclonal antibody; Biogen, Inc.) for the treatment of Alzheimer’s disease using an accelerated approval pathway. Aducanumab’s safety and efficacy profile is complex and subject to debate. Since its approval in 2021, aducanumab has had modest clinical utilization due to its high cost, lack of widespread reimbursement and other reasons. In January 2023, the FDA approved lecanumab (humanized version of a mouse monoclonal antibody; Eisai Co., Ltd) for the treatment of Alzheimer’s disease using an accelerated approval pathway. Both drugs are delivered by infusion.

In recent years, we have observed ramped-up worldwide efforts aimed at developing blood-based techniques to detect and monitor Alzheimer’s disease. The key competitive factors affecting the success of SavaDx, and any other product candidates that we develop to diagnose neurodegeneration, if approved, are likely to be their measure of accuracy, such as specificity and sensitivity, as well as their convenience, patient acceptance, price and the availability of reimbursement from government and other third-party payors. Our competitors in the diagnostic area are pharmaceutical and biotechnology companies, academic institutions and governmental agencies and public and private research institutions. Despite increased research effort, the field has generally been hampered by lack of reproducibility and an unclear path on how to move academic discoveries into clinical utilization.

In addition to blood-based techniques to detect Alzheimer’s disease, competitors are examining the use of novel tracing agents and imaging techniques to map the course of neurodegeneration. In 2012, FDA approved Amyvid® (Eli Lilly Pharmaceuticals), which is a radioactive diagnostic agent for brain imaging of amyloid plaque. Amyvid can rule out Alzheimer’s disease but does not confirm its presence. That is, a negative scan means little or no plaque is present; however, a positive scan does not necessarily indicate Alzheimer’s disease. In addition, Amyvid cannot be used to stage Alzheimer’s disease because some people take years to show cognitive decline after amyloid plaque develops, while other others rapidly develop advanced Alzheimer’s disease within months. Since its approval in 2012, Amyvid has had modest clinical utilization due to its high cost, lack of widespread reimbursement and need for specialized training.

Manufacturing

Simufilam must be manufactured for clinical trial use in compliance with cGMP regulations. These regulations are extensive, stringent and complex, and may include requirements regarding the organization of personnel, buildings and facilities, equipment, control of components and drug product containers and closures, production and process controls, packaging and labeling controls, holding and distribution, laboratory controls, records and reports, and returned or salvaged products. Our manufacturing vendors must have facilities to make simufilam in strict compliance with cGMP requirements and FDA or comparable foreign regulatory authority’s satisfaction. Our third-party vendors may also be subject to periodic inspections of their respective facilities for general cGMP compliance by the FDA and other foreign authorities. These

 

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inspections may include review of procedures and operations used in the testing and manufacture of simufilam to assess compliance with applicable regulations. Failure to comply with statutory and regulatory requirements subjects a manufacturer to possible legal or regulatory action, including warning letters, the seizure or recall of products, injunctions, consent decrees placing significant restrictions on or suspending manufacturing operations and civil and criminal penalties. Contract manufacturers often encounter difficulties involving production yields, quality control and quality assurance, as well as shortages of qualified personnel. Any of these actions or events could have a material impact on the availability of simufilam. Our suppliers may be forced to stop producing, storing, shipping or testing simufilam if they fall out of compliance with government regulations and standards.

We do not own or lease any manufacturing facilities. We outsource formulation, manufacturing and related activities to third parties. For the foreseeable future, we will continue to rely on third parties to conduct certain quality control and assurance testing, shipping or storage of our product candidates.

We currently rely on one non-affiliated contract development and manufacturing organization (CDMO) to manufacture simufilam and expect to continue to do so.

We believe our manufacturing strategy will continue to ensure sufficient drug supply for a Phase 3 program, including both drug substance (i.e., active ingredient) and drug product (i.e., oral tablets). In March 2021, we entered into an agreement with Evonik Corporation to supply large-scale, clinical-grade quantities of drug substance for simufilam. The goal is to ensure the integrity of the drug supply chain on a worldwide basis, in compliance with FDA standards. We believe raw materials for our drug product are readily available from reliable sources.

Our suppliers must comply with current good manufacturing practices (cGMP) enforced by FDA and other government agencies. Our suppliers are subject to unannounced inspection by regulators, including pre-approval inspections by FDA, to ensure they are in strict compliance with government regulations and standards. Our suppliers may be forced to stop producing, storing, shipping or testing our drug products if they fall out of compliance with government regulations and standards.

We have limited or no control over our suppliers’ compliance, or lack thereof, with the multitude of regulations and standards that affect our drug products. We cannot control decisions by our suppliers that affect their ability or willingness to continue to supply us on acceptable terms, or at all.

Government Regulation

Our operations are subject to various levels of governmental controls and regulations in the United States and in other countries where we operate, including Canada, South Korea and Australia. We attempt to comply with all legal requirements in the conduct of our operations and employ business practices that we consider to be prudent under the circumstances in which we operate. Government authorities in the U.S. (federal, state and local), Canada, South Korea, Australia and other countries regulate, among other things, the research, development, testing, manufacture, quality control, approval, labeling, packaging, storage, record-keeping, promotion, advertising, distribution, post-approval monitoring and reporting, marketing and export and import of drug and diagnostic products. Generally, before a new drug or diagnostic can be marketed, considerable data demonstrating its quality, safety and efficacy and/or specificity must be obtained, organized into a format specific for each regulatory authority, submitted for review and approved by each regulatory authority.

U.S. Drug Development

In the U.S., FDA regulates drugs under the Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act (FDCA). Both drugs and diagnostics also are subject to other federal, state and local statutes and regulations. The process of obtaining regulatory approvals and the subsequent compliance with appropriate federal, state, local and foreign statutes and regulations requires the expenditure of substantial time and financial resources. Failure to comply with the applicable U.S. requirements at any time during the product development process, approval process or post-market may subject an applicant to administrative or judicial sanctions. These sanctions could include, among other actions, FDA’s refusal to approve pending applications, withdrawal of an approval, a clinical hold, untitled or warning letters, product recalls or market withdrawals, product seizures, total or partial suspension of production or distribution, injunctions, fines, refusals of government contracts, restitution, disgorgement and civil or criminal penalties. Any agency or judicial enforcement action could have a material adverse effect on us.

Product candidates must be approved by FDA before they may be commercialized in the U.S. The drug approval process generally involves the following:

 

 

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Completion of extensive preclinical studies in accordance with applicable regulations, including studies conducted in accordance with good laboratory practice;

Submission to FDA of an IND, which must become effective before human clinical studies may begin;

Approval by an independent institutional review board (IRB) or ethics committee before each study may be initiated;

Performance of adequate and well-controlled human clinical studies in accordance with applicable IND regulations, code of good clinical practice (cGCP), requirements and other clinical trial-related regulations to establish the safety and efficacy of the investigational product for each proposed indication;

Submission to FDA of an NDA;

A determination by FDA within 60 days of its receipt of an NDA to accept the filing for review;

Satisfactory completion of an FDA pre-approval inspection of the manufacturing facility or facilities where the drug will be produced to assess compliance with cGMP, requirements to assure that the facilities, methods and controls are adequate to preserve the drug’s identity, strength, quality and purity;

Potential FDA audit of the preclinical study and/or clinical study sites that generated the data in support of the NDA;

FDA review and approval of the NDA, including consideration of the views of any FDA advisory committee, prior to any commercial marketing or sale of the drug in the U.S.; and

Compliance with any post-approval requirements, including the potential requirement to conduct post-approval studies.

The data required to support an NDA are generated in two distinct developmental stages: preclinical and clinical. The preclinical and clinical testing and approval process requires substantial time, effort and financial resources, and we cannot be certain that any approvals for any future product candidates will be granted on a timely basis, or at all.

Preclinical Studies and IND

The preclinical developmental stage generally involves laboratory evaluations of drug chemistry, formulation and stability, as well as studies to evaluate toxicity in animals, which support subsequent clinical testing. As sponsor, we must submit the results of the preclinical studies, together with manufacturing information, analytical data, any available clinical data or literature and a proposed clinical protocol, to FDA as part of the IND. An IND is a request for authorization from FDA to administer an investigational product to humans and must become effective before human clinical studies may begin.

Preclinical studies include laboratory evaluation of product chemistry and formulation, as well as in vitro and animal studies to assess the potential for adverse events and in some cases to establish a rationale for therapeutic use. The conduct of preclinical studies is subject to federal regulations and requirements, including cGCP regulations for safety/toxicology studies. An IND sponsor must submit the results of the preclinical tests, together with manufacturing information, analytical data, any available clinical data or literature and plans for clinical studies, among other things, to FDA as part of an IND. Some long-term preclinical testing, such as long-term toxicity tests, animal tests of reproductive adverse events and carcinogenicity, may continue after the IND is submitted. An IND automatically becomes effective 30 days after receipt by FDA, unless before that time FDA raises concerns or questions about any aspect of the program. In such a case, the IND sponsor and FDA must resolve any outstanding concerns before the clinical study can begin.

Clinical Studies

The clinical stage of development involves the administration of the investigational product to healthy volunteers or patients under the supervision of qualified investigators, generally physicians not employed by or under the study sponsor’s control, in accordance with cGCP requirements, which include the requirement that all research subjects provide their informed consent for their participation in any clinical trial. Clinical studies are conducted under protocols detailing, among other things, the objectives of the clinical trial, dosing procedures, subject selection and exclusion criteria and the parameters to be used to monitor subject safety and assess efficacy. Each protocol, and any subsequent amendments to the protocol, must be submitted to FDA as part of the IND. Furthermore, each clinical study must be reviewed and approved by an IRB for each institution at which the clinical study will be conducted to ensure that the risks to individuals participating in the clinical studies are minimized and are reasonable in relation to anticipated benefits. The IRB also approves the informed consent form that must be provided to each clinical study subject or his or her legal representative and must monitor the clinical study until

 

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completed. There also are requirements governing the reporting of ongoing clinical studies and completed clinical study results to public registries.

A sponsor who wishes to conduct a clinical study outside of the U.S. may, but need not, obtain FDA authorization to conduct the clinical study under an IND. If a foreign clinical study is not conducted under an IND, the sponsor may submit data from the clinical study to FDA in support of an NDA. The FDA may accept a well-designed and well-conducted foreign clinical study not conducted under an IND if the study was conducted in accordance with cGCP requirements and FDA is able to validate the data through an onsite inspection if deemed necessary. We currently have clinical sites outside of the U.S. in Canada, Puerto Rico, South Korea and Australia.

Clinical studies in the U.S. generally are conducted in three sequential phases, known as Phase 1, Phase 2 and Phase 3, and may overlap.

 

Phase 1 clinical studies generally involve a small number of healthy volunteers or disease-affected patients who are initially exposed to a single dose and then multiple doses of the product candidate. The primary purpose of these clinical studies is to assess the metabolism, pharmacologic action, tolerability and safety of a drug candidate.

Phase 2 clinical studies involve studies in disease-affected patients to determine the proper dose required to produce the desired benefits. At the same time, safety and further pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic information is collected, possible adverse effects and safety risks are identified, and a preliminary evaluation of efficacy may be observed.

Phase 3 clinical studies generally involve enrolling many patients at multiple sites and are designed to provide the data necessary to demonstrate the effectiveness of the product for its intended use, its safety in use and to establish the overall benefit/risk relationship of the product and provide an adequate basis for product approval. These studies may include comparisons with placebo and/or other comparator treatments. The duration of treatment is often extended to mimic the actual use of a product during marketing.

Post-approval studies, sometimes referred to as Phase 4 clinical studies, may be conducted after initial marketing approval. These studies are used to gain additional experience from the treatment of patients in the intended therapeutic indication. In certain instances, FDA may mandate the performance of Phase 4 clinical studies as a condition of approval of an NDA.

Progress reports detailing the results of the clinical studies, among other information, must be submitted at least annually to FDA. Written safety reports and the investigators for serious and unexpected adverse events, or any other findings suggesting a significant risk to humans exposed to the drug must be submitted to FDA.

Phase 1, Phase 2, and Phase 3 clinical studies may not be completed successfully within any specified period, if at all. The FDA or the sponsor may suspend or terminate a clinical study at any time on various grounds, including a finding that the research subjects or patients are being exposed to an unacceptable health risk. Similarly, an IRB can suspend or terminate approval of a clinical study at its institution if the clinical study is not being conducted in accordance with the IRB’s requirements or if the drug has been associated with unexpected serious harm to patients. Additionally, some clinical studies are overseen by an independent group of qualified experts organized by the clinical study sponsor, known as a data safety monitoring board. This group provides authorization for whether a study may move forward at designated check-points based on access to certain data from the trial. Concurrent with clinical studies, companies usually complete additional animal studies and must develop additional information about the chemistry and physical characteristics of the drug as well as finalize a process for manufacturing the product in commercial quantities in accordance with cGMP requirements. The manufacturing process must be capable of consistently producing quality batches of the product and, among other things, companies must develop methods for testing the identity, strength, quality and purity of the final product. Additionally, appropriate packaging must be selected and tested, and stability studies must be conducted to demonstrate that our product candidates do not undergo unacceptable deterioration over their shelf life.

NDA Review Process

Following completion of the clinical studies, data is analyzed to assess whether the investigational product is safe and effective for the proposed indicated use or uses. The results of preclinical studies and clinical studies are then submitted to FDA as part of an NDA, along with proposed labeling, chemistry and manufacturing information to ensure product quality and other relevant data. In short, the NDA is a request for approval to market a drug for one or more specified indication and must contain proof of safety and efficacy for a drug’s purity and potency. The application may include both negative and ambiguous results of preclinical studies and clinical studies, as well as positive findings. Data may come from company-sponsored clinical studies intended to test the safety and efficacy of a product’s use or from several alternative sources,

 

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including studies initiated by investigators. To support marketing approval, the data submitted must be sufficient in quality and quantity to establish the safety and efficacy of the investigational product to the satisfaction of FDA. FDA approval of an NDA must be obtained before a drug may be marketed in the U.S.

Under the Prescription Drug User Fee Act (PDUFA), as amended, each NDA must be accompanied by a user fee. FDA adjusts the PDUFA user fees on an annual basis. According to FDA’s fiscal year 2023 fee schedule, effective through September 30, 2023, the user fee for an application requiring clinical data, such as an NDA, is approximately $3.2 million. Fee waivers or reductions are available in certain circumstances, including a waiver of the application fee for the first application filed by a small business. Additionally, no user fees are assessed on NDAs for products designated as orphan drugs, unless the product also includes a non-orphan indication.

The FDA reviews all submitted NDAs before it accepts them for filing and may request additional information rather than accept the NDA for filing. The FDA must decide whether to accept an NDA for filing within 60 days of receipt. Once the submission is accepted for filing, FDA begins an in-depth review of the NDA. Under the goals and policies agreed to by FDA under PDUFA, FDA has 10 months, from the filing date, in which to complete its initial review of a new molecular-entity NDA and respond to the applicant, and six months from the filing date of a new molecular-entity NDA designated for priority review. The FDA does not always meet its PDUFA goal dates for standard and priority NDAs, and the review process is often extended by FDA requests for additional information or clarification.

Before approving an NDA, FDA may conduct a pre-approval inspection of the manufacturing facilities for the new product to determine whether they comply with cGMP requirements. The FDA will not approve the product unless it determines that the manufacturing processes and facilities fully comply with cGMP requirements and are adequate to assure consistent production of the product within required specifications. The FDA also may audit data from clinical studies to ensure compliance with cGCP requirements. Additionally, FDA may refer applications for novel product candidates which present difficult questions of safety or efficacy to an advisory committee, typically a panel that includes clinicians and other experts, for review, evaluation and a recommendation as to whether the application should be approved and under what conditions, if any. The FDA is not bound by recommendations of an advisory committee, but it considers such recommendations when making decisions on approval. The FDA likely will reanalyze the clinical study data, which could result in extensive discussions between FDA and the applicant during the review process. After FDA evaluates an NDA, it will issue either an approval letter or a Complete Response Letter (CRL). An approval letter authorizes commercial marketing of the drug with specific prescribing information for specific indications. A CRL indicates that FDA’s review of the application is complete and the application cannot be approved in its present form. A CRL usually describes the specific deficiencies in the NDA identified by FDA. The CRL may require additional clinical data, additional pivotal Phase 3 clinical trial(s) and/or other significant and time-consuming requirements related to clinical studies, preclinical studies or manufacturing. If a CRL is issued, the applicant may either resubmit the NDA, addressing all the deficiencies identified in the CRL, or withdraw the application. Even if such data and information are submitted, FDA may decide that the NDA does not satisfy the criteria for approval. Data obtained from clinical studies are not always conclusive and FDA may interpret data differently than we interpret the same data.

Commercialization Plan

Our product candidates have not received marketing approval from the FDA, and we do not expect to have any approved product candidates in the near term. We currently have no company experience in marketing drugs and have no personnel, capabilities or infrastructure in sales, marketing, third-party payor programs or commercial product distribution. When and if any of our product candidates are approved for commercialization, we will need to develop a commercialization infrastructure for any such product in the U.S. and potentially in certain other key markets. As a matter of strategy, we may also rely on partnerships or collaborations with larger biopharmaceutical companies to provide commercialization infrastructure, such as sales and marketing and commercial distribution.

Advertising and Promotion

The FDA and other federal regulatory agencies closely regulate the marketing and promotion of drugs through, among other things, standards and regulations for direct-to-consumer advertising, communications regarding unapproved uses, industry-sponsored scientific and educational activities, and promotional activities involving the Internet. None of our product candidates can be commercially promoted before receiving FDA approval. After approval, product promotion can include only those claims relating to safety and effectiveness that are consistent with the labeling approved by FDA. Healthcare providers are permitted to prescribe drugs for “off-label” uses — that is, uses not approved by FDA and therefore not described in the drug’s labeling — because FDA does not regulate the practice of medicine. However, FDA regulations impose stringent restrictions on manufacturers’ communications regarding off-label uses. Failure to comply with applicable FDA requirements and restrictions in this area may subject us to adverse publicity and enforcement action by FDA, the U.S. Department of

 

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Justice, or the Office of the Inspector General of Health and Human Services, as well as state authorities. This could subject us to a range of penalties that could have a significant commercial impact, including civil and criminal fines and agreements that materially restrict the manner in which we promote or distribute our product candidates.

Post-Approval Requirements

After a product candidate receives regulatory approval, it is often subject to pervasive and continuing regulation by FDA, including, among other things, requirements relating to drug listing and registration, recordkeeping, periodic reporting, product sampling and distribution, adverse event reporting and advertising, marketing and promotion restrictions.

Adverse event reporting and submission of periodic reports is required following FDA approval of an NDA. The FDA also may require post-market testing, known as Phase 4 testing, or FDA may place conditions on an approval that could restrict the distribution or use of the product. In addition, quality control, drug manufacture, packaging, and labeling procedures must continue to conform to cGMP after approval. Drug manufacturers and certain of their subcontractors are required to register their establishments with FDA and certain state agencies. Registration may result in periodic announced or unannounced inspections by FDA or these state agencies, during which the agency inspects manufacturing facilities to assess compliance with cGMP. Accordingly, manufacturers must continue to expend time, money, and effort in the areas of production and quality control to maintain compliance with cGMP. Regulatory authorities may withdraw product approvals or request product recalls if a company fails to comply with regulatory standards, if it encounters problems following initial marketing, or if previously unrecognized problems are subsequently discovered. In addition, other regulatory actions may be taken, including, among other things, warning letters, the seizure of products, injunctions, consent decrees placing significant restrictions on or suspending manufacturing operations, refusal to approve pending applications or supplements to approved applications, civil penalties, and criminal prosecution.

The FDA may require post-approval clinical studies to help assure continued safety or effectiveness of the approved drug. The FDA may also require a labeling change if it becomes aware of new safety information that it believes should be included in the labeling of a drug.

In addition to the FDA, manufacturing, sales, promotion and other activities following product approval are also subject to regulation by numerous regulatory authorities in the U.S., including the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services, other divisions of the Department of Health and Human Services, the Department of Justice, the Consumer Product Safety Commission, the Federal Trade Commission, the Occupational Safety & Health Administration, the Environmental Protection Agency, the Affordable Care Act (ACA) and state and local governments.

For example, in the United States, sales, marketing and scientific and educational programs must also comply with state and federal fraud and abuse laws. These laws include the federal Anti-Kickback Statute, which makes it illegal for any person, including a prescription drug manufacturer (or a party acting on its behalf), to knowingly and willfully solicit, receive, offer or pay any remuneration that is intended to induce or reward referrals, including the purchase, recommendation, order or prescription of a particular drug, for which payment may be made under a federal healthcare program, such as Medicare or Medicaid. Violations of this law are punishable by prison, criminal fines, administrative civil money penalties and exclusion from participation in federal healthcare programs. Moreover, the ACA provides that the government may assert that a claim including items or services resulting from a violation of the federal Anti-Kickback Statute constitutes a false or fraudulent claim for purposes of the False Claims Act.

 

Pricing and rebate programs must comply with the Medicaid rebate requirements of the U.S. Omnibus Budget Reconciliation Act of 1990 and more recent requirements in the ACA. If products are made available to authorized users of the Federal Supply Schedule of the General Services Administration, additional laws and requirements apply. Products must meet applicable child-resistant packaging requirements under the U.S. Poison Prevention Packaging Act. Manufacturing, sales, promotion and other activities also are potentially subject to federal and state consumer protection and unfair competition laws.

The distribution of pharmaceutical products is subject to additional requirements and regulations, including extensive record-keeping, licensing, storage and security requirements intended to prevent the unauthorized sale of pharmaceutical products.

The failure to comply with any of these laws or regulatory requirements subjects firms to possible legal or regulatory action. Depending on the circumstances, failure to meet applicable regulatory requirements can result in criminal prosecution, fines or other penalties, injunctions, requests for recall, seizure of products, total or partial suspension of production, denial or withdrawal of product approvals or refusal to allow a firm to enter into supply contracts, including government contracts. Any action against us for violation of these laws, even if we successfully defend against it, could cause us to incur significant

 

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legal expenses and divert our management’s attention from the operation of our business. Prohibitions or restrictions on sales or withdrawal of future products marketed by us could materially affect our business in an adverse way.

Changes in regulations, statutes or the interpretation of existing regulations could impact our business in the future by requiring, for example: changes to our manufacturing arrangements; additions or modifications to product labeling, if and when approved; the recall or discontinuation of our products; or additional record-keeping requirements. If any such changes were to be imposed, they could adversely affect the operation of our business.

The Hatch-Waxman Amendments

Orange Book Listing

In seeking approval for our product candidates through an NDA, we will be required to list with FDA each patent whose claims cover the drug product. Upon receiving regulatory approval, each of the patents listed in the application for this drug is then published in FDA’s Approved Drug Products with Therapeutic Equivalence Evaluations, commonly known as the “Orange Book”. Drugs listed in the Orange Book can, in turn, be cited by potential generic competitors in support of approval of an abbreviated NDA, or ANDA. An ANDA provides for marketing of a drug product that has the same active ingredient in the same strengths and dosage form as the listed drug and has been shown through bioequivalence testing to be therapeutically equivalent to the listed drug. Other than the requirement for bioequivalence testing, ANDA applicants are not required to conduct, or submit results of, preclinical or clinical tests to prove the safety or efficacy of their drug product. Drugs approved in this way are commonly referred to as “generic equivalents” to the listed drug, and can often be substituted by pharmacists under prescriptions written for the original listed drug.

The ANDA applicant is required to make certain certifications to FDA concerning any patents listed for the approved product in FDA’s Orange Book. Specifically, the applicant must certify that: (i) the required patent information has not been filed; (ii) the listed patent has expired; (iii) the listed patent has not expired but will expire on a particular date and approval is sought after patent expiration; or (iv) the listed patent is invalid or will not be infringed by the new product. The ANDA applicant may also elect to submit a section viii statement certifying that its proposed ANDA label does not contain (or carves out) any language regarding the patented method-of-use rather than make certifications concerning a listed method-of-use patent. If the applicant does not challenge the listed patents, the ANDA application will not be approved until all the listed patents claiming the referenced product have expired.

A certification that the new product will not infringe the already approved product’s listed patents, or that such patents are invalid, is called a Paragraph IV certification. If the ANDA applicant has provided a Paragraph IV certification to FDA, the applicant must also send notice of the Paragraph IV certification to the NDA and patent holders once the ANDA has been accepted for filing by FDA. The NDA and patent holders may then initiate a patent infringement lawsuit in response to the notice of the Paragraph IV certification. The filing of a patent infringement lawsuit within 45 days of the receipt of a Paragraph IV certification automatically prevents FDA from approving the ANDA until the earlier of 30 months, expiration of the patent, settlement of the lawsuit, or a decision in the infringement case that is favorable to the ANDA applicant. The ANDA application also will not be approved until any applicable non-patent exclusivity listed in the Orange Book for the referenced product has expired.

Disclosure of Clinical Study Information

Sponsors of clinical studies of FDA-regulated products, including drugs, are required to register and disclose certain clinical study information. Information related to the product, patient population, phase of investigation, clinical study sites and investigators, and other aspects of the clinical study is then made public as part of the registration. Sponsors are also obligated to post certain information regarding the results of their clinical studies after completion. Disclosure of the results of these studies can be delayed until the new product or new indication being studied has been approved. Competitors may use this publicly available information to gain knowledge regarding the progress of development programs.

 

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Other Regulatory Requirements

We may be subject to federal, state and local environmental laws and regulations, including the Environmental Protection Act and the Clean Air Act. Although we believe that our safety procedures for handling and disposing of controlled materials comply with the standards prescribed by state and federal regulations, accidental contamination or injury from these materials may occur. In the event of such an occurrence, we could be held liable for any damages that result and any such liability could exceed our resources.

We may also be subject to regulations under other federal, state, and local laws, including the Occupational Safety and Health Act, national restrictions on technology transfer, and import, export, and customs regulations. It is possible that any portion of the regulatory framework under which we operate may change and that such change could have a negative impact on our current and anticipated operations. Failure to comply with these requirements could result, among other things, in suspension of regulatory approval, recalls, injunctions or civil or criminal sanctions.

Third-Party Payor Coverage and Reimbursement

The commercial success of our product candidates, if approved, will depend, in part, upon the availability of coverage and adequate reimbursement from third-party payors at the federal, state and private levels. Third-party payors include governmental programs such as Medicare or Medicaid, private insurance plans and managed care plans. These third-party payors may deny coverage or reimbursement for our product candidates in whole or in part if they determine that our product candidates are not medically appropriate or necessary. Also, third-party payors attempt to control costs by limiting coverage through the use of formularies and other cost-containment mechanisms and the amount of reimbursement for particular procedures or drug treatments.

Some third-party payors also require pre-approval of coverage for new or innovative devices or drug therapies before they will reimburse healthcare providers who use such therapies. While we cannot predict whether any proposed cost-containment measures will be adopted or otherwise implemented in the future, these requirements or any announcement or adoption of such proposals could have a material adverse effect on our ability to obtain adequate prices for our approved product candidates to operate profitably.

Human Capital

Our approach to human capital resource management starts with our mission to detect and treat neurodegenerative diseases, such as Alzheimer’s disease. Our industry exists in a complex regulatory environment. The unique demands of our industry, together with the challenges of running an enterprise focused on the discovery, development, manufacture and commercialization of innovative medicines, require talent that is highly educated and/or has significant industry experience. Additionally, for certain key functions, we require specific scientific expertise to oversee and conduct research and development activities and the complex manufacturing requirements for biopharmaceutical products.

We consider our ability to recruit, retain and motivate our employees to be critical to our success. We are an equal opportunity employer, and we are fundamentally committed to creating and maintaining a work environment in which employees are treated with respect and dignity. All human resources policies, practices and actions related to hiring, promotion, compensation, benefits and termination are administered in accordance with the principal of equal employment opportunity, meaning that they are made on the basis of individual skills, knowledge, abilities, job performance and other legitimate criteria and without regard to race, color, religion, sex, sexual orientation, gender expression or identity, ethnicity, national origin, ancestry, age, mental or physical disability, genetic information, any veteran status, any military status or application for military service, or membership in any other category protected under applicable law. By focusing on employee retention and engagement, we also improve our ability to support our clinical trials, our pipeline, business and operations, and also protect the long-term interests of our stockholders. Our success also depends on our ability to attract, engage and retain a diverse group of employees.

 

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Our base pay program aims to compensate management and staff members relative to the value of the contributions of their role, which takes into account the skills, knowledge and abilities required to perform each position, as well as the experience brought to the job. We also provide cash incentive programs to reward our management team and staff members in alignment with achievement of Company-wide goals that are designed to drive aspects of our strategic priorities that support and advance our strategy across our Company. Our management team and staff members are eligible for the grant of equity awards under our long-term incentive program that are designed to align their long-term interests with that of our stockholders.

Our benefit programs are also generally broad-based, promote health and overall well-being and emphasize saving for retirement. All management team and regular staff members are eligible to participate in the same core health and welfare and retirement savings plans. Other employee benefits may include medical plans, dental plans, vacation and sick-pay plans, flexible spending accounts, life and accident insurance and short and long-term disability benefits.

Our Compensation Committee provides oversight of our executive compensation plans, policies and programs.

As of December 31, 2022, we had 26 full-time employees. None of our employees are represented by a labor union or covered under a collective bargaining agreement. We also engage numerous consultants to perform services on retainer, per diem or an hourly basis.

Lawsuit Against Perpetrators of “Short and Distort” Campaign

On November 3, 2022, we announced that we had filed a lawsuit in federal court against certain individuals who executed a “short and distort” campaign against Cassava Sciences. The 150+ page complaint alleges that the defendants’ disinformation campaign caused a precipitous decline in Cassava Sciences’ stock price, a multi-billion dollar decline in its market capitalization, and delayed the Company’s work in developing a treatment for Alzheimer’s disease. The complaint identifies over 1,000 false and defamatory statements made by the defendants in submissions to the U.S. Food and Drug Administration as well as “reports” and presentations that defendants published online or on social media. The matter is pending in federal district court for the Southern District of New York.

Publication Corrections

An erratum or corrigendum is a correction of a published text, generally a human, production or author's error, that was not caught in proofing. Such errors generally do not impact data conclusions. We note the following corrections in our published works.

In July 2021, we presented clinical data for SavaDx in a poster presentation titled, “SavaDx, a Novel Plasma Biomarker to Detect Alzheimer’s Disease, Confirms Mechanism of Action of Simufilamat the Alzheimer’s Association International Conference (AAIC) in Denver, CO and virtually. Publication correction: The AAIC data and data analysis are correct, however, visual errors that were not caught in proofing were disclosed by the Company in September 2021. This error does not impact data conclusions.

In 2017, we published in Neurobiology of Aging an article titled “PTI-125 binds and reverses an altered conformation of filamin A to reduce Alzheimer’s disease pathogenesis” (Vol 55, July 2017, Pages 99–114). Publication correction: Figure 12 contains an image showing 12 control bands. It should show 13. The data analysis was based on all 13 control bands. Other human errors in this publication have been noted and are expected to be corrected and published. These errors do not impact data conclusions.

In 2012, we published in the Journal of Neuroscience an article titled, “Reducing Amyloid-Related Alzheimer's Disease Pathogenesis by a Small Molecule Targeting Filamin A” (JNeurosci 2012;32:9773-9784). Publication correction: A duplicated panel appears in Figure 8B of the article. This error does not impact data conclusions and the publisher printed a correction.

Corporate Information

We were incorporated as a Delaware corporation in May 1998 under the name Pain Therapeutics, Inc. In March 2019, we changed our company name to Cassava Sciences, Inc. Our principal offices are located at 6801 N. Capital of Texas Highway, Building 1; Suite 300, Austin, TX, 78731. Our telephone number is 512-501-2444. Our website address is www.CassavaSciences.com. Information contained on our website is not a part of this Annual Report on Form 10-K and the inclusion of our website address in this Annual Report on Form 10-K is an inactive textual reference only.

 

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We use Cassava Sciences, the Cassava Sciences logo, artwork and other marks as trademarks in the United States and other countries. Solely for convenience, trademarks and trade names referred to in this Annual Report, including logos, artwork, and other visual displays, may appear without the ® or TM symbols, but such references are not intended to indicate in any way that we will not assert, to the fullest extent under applicable law, our rights, or the rights of the applicable licensor to these trademarks and trade names. We do not intend our use or display of other entities’ trade names, trademarks, or service marks to imply a relationship with, or endorsement or sponsorship of us by, any other entity.

We file electronically with the Securities and Exchange Commission, or SEC, our annual reports on Form 10-K, quarterly reports on Form 10-Q and current reports on Form 8-K pursuant to Section 13(a) or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended (the “Exchange Act”). The SEC maintains an Internet site that contains reports, proxy and information statements, and other information regarding issuers that file electronically with the SEC. The address of the site is http://www.sec.gov.

You may obtain a free copy of our annual reports on Form 10-K, quarterly reports on Form 10-Q and current reports on Form 8-K and amendments to those reports on the day of filing with the SEC on our website at http://www.cassavasciences.com, by contacting our corporate offices by calling 512-501-2450 or by sending an e-mail message to IR@cassavasciences.com.


 

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Item 1A.     Risk Factors

RISK FACTORS

Investing in our common stock involves a high degree of risk. You should carefully consider the risks described below, as well as other information contained in this Annual Report on Form 10-K, including our consolidated financial statements and the related notes and the section titled “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations,” before deciding whether to invest in our common stock. The occurrence of any of the events or developments described below could harm our business, financial condition, results of operations, and growth prospects. In such an event, the market price of our common stock could decline, and you may lose all or part of your investment.

Below is a summary of the principal factors that make an investment in our common stock speculative or risky. Additional risks and uncertainties not presently known to us or that we currently deem immaterial also may impair our business operations and the market price of our common stock.

Risks Related to the Discovery, Development, and Commercialization of Our Product Candidates

Since 2017, we have concentrated a substantial portion of our research and development efforts on the treatment of Alzheimer’s disease, an area of research that has seen significant failure rates. Further, our product candidates are based on new scientific approaches and novel technology, which makes it difficult to predict the time and cost of product candidate development and likelihood of success.

We are heavily dependent on the success of simufilam, our product candidate which is still under development. If this product candidate does not receive regulatory approval, we will be unable to generate product revenue and our business will be harmed.

We have a limited operating history in our business targeting Alzheimer’s disease and no history of product approvals for commercial sale, which may make it difficult to evaluate our current business and predict our future success and viability.

We cannot give any assurance that we will file for regulatory approval for any of our product candidates, or that if we file for approval, our product candidates will receive regulatory approval, which is necessary before they can be commercialized.

There can be no assurance that results of smaller Phase 1 and Phase 2 clinical trials or open-label study with simufilam will be reproduced in our large Phase 3 studies that are required to demonstrate safety and efficacy in order to potentially receive regulatory approval.

Clinical results observed in our open-label study with simufilam are not regulatory evidence of drug safety or efficacy.

We may encounter substantial delays in our clinical studies or may not be able to conduct or complete our clinical studies on the timelines we expect, if at all.

If physicians and patients do not accept and use our drugs, we will not achieve sufficient product revenues and our business will suffer.

Risks Related to Government Regulation and Other Legal Compliance Matters

Our financial condition and operating results could be adversely impacted by unfavorable results of legal proceedings, government investigations or allegations and other claims.

If we are ultimately unable to file for and obtain regulatory approval for our product candidates, we will be unable to generate product revenue and our business will be substantially harmed.

Our ability to market and promote our product candidates will be determined and limited by FDA-approved labeling.

Our employees, independent contractors, consultants, commercial partners, and vendors may engage in misconduct or other improper activities, including noncompliance with regulatory standards and requirements.

If we fail to comply or stay in compliance with the complex set of federal, state, local and foreign laws and regulations that apply to our business, we could suffer severe consequences that could materially and adversely affect our operating results and financial condition.

 

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Government agencies may establish and promulgate usage guidelines that could limit the use of our product candidates.

Risks Related to Our Intellectual Property

If we are unable to obtain and maintain sufficient patent protection for any product candidates we develop, our competitors could develop and commercialize products similar or identical to ours, and our ability to successfully commercialize any product candidates we may develop may be adversely affected.

U.S. intellectual property rights around diagnostic methods is a complex, evolving area of law and effective patent claims may not be available to us for our investigational diagnostic product candidate, SavaDx, in the United States.

Issued patents covering our product candidates and other technologies could be found invalid or unenforceable if challenged in court or before administrative bodies in the U.S. or abroad.

If we do not obtain patent term extension and data exclusivity for any product candidates we may develop, our business may be materially harmed.

If we are unable to protect the confidentiality of our trade secrets, our business and competitive position would be materially harmed.

Risks Related to Our Business and Operations

Our reputation and operations could be adversely impacted by allegations, regardless of their merits.

Our ability to continue to operate without any significant disruptions will, in part, depend on our ability to source materials and clinical supplies via our product supply chains.

Our reliance on third parties for both the supply and manufacture of materials for our product candidates carries the risk that we will not have sufficient quality or quantities of such materials or product candidates, or that such supply will not be available to us at an acceptable cost, which could delay, prevent, or impair our development or commercialization efforts.

We expect to significantly grow the size and capabilities of our organization and we may experience difficulties in effectively managing this growth.

Ownership of our corporate headquarters and property leasing to third parties are subject to numerous risks and uncertainties.

Our internal computer systems, or those used by third parties on whom we rely, may fail or suffer other breakdowns, cyberattacks, or information security breaches that could compromise the confidentiality, integrity, and availability of such systems and data, result in material disruptions of our development programs and business operations, risk disclosure of confidential, financial, or proprietary information, and affect our reputation.

Our business involves environmental risks that may result in liability for us.

Business disruptions and lack of appropriate levels of commercial insurance could seriously harm our future revenue and financial condition and increase our costs and expenses.

Social media platforms have significantly altered the dynamics of corporate communications and present risks and challenges, some of which are, and may continue to be unknown to us.

Risks Related to Financial Condition and Capital Requirements

We have incurred significant net losses in each period since our inception and anticipate that we will continue to incur net losses for the foreseeable future.

We have broad discretion in the use of the net proceeds from any of our financing transactions and may not use them effectively.

We have no product revenues and may never achieve revenues or profitability based on product revenues.

 

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Risks Related to the Ownership of Our Common Stock

We do not know whether a sufficient market will continue to develop for our common stock or what the market price of our common stock will be, and, as a result, it may be difficult for investors to sell shares of our common stock.

The market price of our common stock has historically been highly volatile and we expect it to continue to be volatile, which could result in substantial losses for investors who purchase our shares.

If we are unable to maintain effective internal controls, our business, financial position, and results of operations could be adversely affected.

Anti-takeover provisions in our charter documents and Delaware law may prevent or delay removal of incumbent management or a change of control.

Changes in our ownership could limit our ability to utilize net operating loss carryforwards.

Risks Related to the Discovery, Development, and Commercialization of Our Product Candidates

Since 2017, we have concentrated a substantial portion of our research and development efforts on the treatment of Alzheimer’s disease, an area of research that has seen significant failure rates. Further, our product candidates are based on new scientific approaches and novel technology, which makes it difficult to predict the time and cost of product candidate development and likelihood of success.

Since 2017, we have concentrated a substantial portion of our research and development efforts on experimental methods for the treatment of Alzheimer’s disease. Prior efforts by biopharmaceutical companies to develop new treatments for Alzheimer’s disease have seen very limited clinical success. Notwithstanding these substantial challenges to date, we seek to improve brain health by addressing the neurodegeneration and neuroinflammation components of Alzheimer’s disease. Our lead drug candidate for Alzheimer’s disease is based on a new approach of stabilizing – but not removing – a critical protein in the brain. We cannot be certain that our novel technologies will lead to an approvable or marketable product. In addition, because FDA has limited comparators to evaluate our lead drug candidate, we could experience a longer than expected regulatory review process and increased development costs.

We are heavily dependent on the success of simufilam, our product candidate which is still under development. If this product candidate does not receive regulatory approval, we will be unable to generate product revenue and our business may be harmed.

Since inception, we have not succeeded in getting regulatory approval for our product candidates and we may never do so. In recent years, we have invested a significant portion of our efforts and financial resources in the development of simufilam and, to a much lesser extent, SavaDx, for the treatment and detection of Alzheimer’s disease, respectively. Our future success is substantially dependent on our ability to successfully complete clinical development and obtain regulatory approval for simufilam, which may never occur. We expect that a substantial portion of our efforts and expenditures over the next few years will be devoted to simufilam and, to a much lesser extent, SavaDx. This will require additional clinical development, management of clinical and manufacturing activities, regulatory approval in one or more national jurisdictions and obtaining commercial-scale manufacturing supply. Substantial investment and significant efforts will be required before we can generate any revenues from any commercial sales of our product candidates. We cannot be certain that we will be able to successfully complete any of these activities.

We have a limited operating history in our business targeting Alzheimer’s disease and no history of product approvals for commercial sale, which may make it difficult to evaluate our current business and predict our future success and viability.

We are a clinical-stage biopharmaceutical company with a limited operating history in our business targeting Alzheimer’s disease. Since we commenced operations in 1998, we have had no product candidates approved for commercial sale and have not generated any revenue from product sales. Drug development is a highly uncertain undertaking and involves a substantial degree of risk. To date, we have not completed a pivotal Phase 3 clinical study in Alzheimer’s disease, obtained marketing approval for any product candidates, or conducted sales and marketing activities necessary for successful product commercialization. Our long operating history as a company without product revenue makes any assessment of our future success and viability subject to significant uncertainty.

We will continue to encounter risks and difficulties frequently experienced by clinical-stage biopharmaceutical companies in rapidly evolving fields. We have not yet demonstrated an ability to successfully overcome such risks and

 

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difficulties. If we do not successfully address these risks and difficulties, our business, results of operations and financial condition will suffer materially.

We cannot give any assurance that any of our product candidates will receive regulatory approval, which is necessary before they can be commercialized.

To date, we have invested substantial effort and financial resources to identify, procure intellectual property for, and develop our programs in neurodegeneration, including conducting preclinical and clinical studies for our product candidates, simufilam and SavaDx, and providing general and administrative support for these operations. Our future success is dependent on our ability to successfully develop, obtain regulatory approval for, and then successfully commercialize our product candidates, and we may fail to do so for many reasons, including the following:  

our product candidates may not successfully complete preclinical studies or clinical studies;

a product candidate may, on further study, be shown to have harmful side effects or other characteristics that indicate it is unlikely to be safe or effective or otherwise does not meet applicable regulatory criteria;

our competitors may develop products that render our product candidates obsolete or less attractive;

the product candidates that we develop may not be sufficiently covered by intellectual property;

the product candidates that we develop may be challenged by third parties’ patents or other intellectual property or exclusive rights;

the market for our product candidates may change so that the continued development of a product candidate is no longer reasonable or commercially attractive;

our product candidates may not be capable of being produced in commercial quantities at an acceptable cost, or at all;

if a product candidate obtains regulatory approval, we may be unable to establish sales and marketing capabilities, or successfully market such approved product candidate, to gain market acceptance; and

 a product candidate may not be accepted as safe, effective or useful by patients, the medical community or third-party payors, if applicable.

If any of these events occur, we may be forced to abandon our development efforts for a program or programs, which would have a material adverse effect on our business and could potentially cause us to cease operations.

We may not be successful in our efforts to further develop our product candidates. We are not permitted to market or promote any of our product candidates before we receive regulatory approval from FDA or comparable foreign regulatory authorities, and we may never receive such regulatory approval for any of our product candidates. SavaDx is in the early stages of development. Simufilam, our late-stage product candidate, will require significant additional clinical development, management of preclinical, clinical, and manufacturing activities, regulatory approval, adequate manufacturing supply, a commercial organization, and significant marketing efforts before we generate any revenue from product sales, if at all.

We have never completed a product development program in neurodegeneration. Further, we cannot be certain that any of our product candidates will be successful in clinical studies. We may in the future advance product candidates into clinical studies and terminate such studies prior to their completion.

If any of our product candidates successfully complete clinical studies, we may seek regulatory approval to market our product candidates in the U.S., Japan, Canada, the United Kingdom or the European Union, and in additional foreign countries where we believe there is a viable commercial opportunity. We may never receive regulatory approval to market any product candidates anywhere even if such product candidates successfully complete clinical studies, which would adversely affect our viability. To obtain regulatory approval in countries outside the U.S., we would need to comply with numerous and varying regulatory requirements of such other countries regarding safety, efficacy, manufacturing and controls, clinical studies, commercial sales, pricing, and distribution of our product candidates. Even if we are successful in obtaining approval in one jurisdiction, we cannot ensure that we will obtain approval in any other jurisdictions. If we are unable to obtain approval for our product candidates in multiple jurisdictions, our business, financial condition, results of operations, and our growth prospects could be negatively affected.

Even if we receive regulatory approval to market any of our product candidates, whether for the treatment or diagnosis of neurodegenerative diseases or other diseases, we cannot provide assurance that any such product candidate will be

 

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successfully commercialized, widely accepted in the marketplace or more effective than other commercially available alternatives.

Investment in biopharmaceutical product development involves significant risk that any product candidate will fail to demonstrate adequate efficacy or an acceptable safety profile, gain regulatory approval, and become commercially viable. We cannot provide any assurance that we will be able to successfully advance any of our product candidates through the development process or, if approved, successfully commercialize any of our product candidates.

There can be no assurance that results of smaller Phase 1 and Phase 2 clinical trials or open-label study with simufilam will be reproduced in our large Phase 3 studies that are required to demonstrate safety and efficacy in order to potentially receive regulatory approval.

Results of our Phase 1, Phase 2 and open-label safety studies with simufilam are not predictive of the results of Phase 3 clinical trials. Simufilam may fail to show the desired safety and efficacy in Phase 3 clinical trials despite having progressed successfully through preclinical studies and initial clinical trials. Many biopharmaceutical companies have suffered significant setbacks in Phase 3 clinical trials due to lack of efficacy or adverse safety profiles, notwithstanding promising results in earlier trials. In addition, conclusions based on data from analyses of Phase 1 and Phase 2 clinical studies and open-label results may not be reproduced when implemented in large, well-controlled, randomized clinical trials. Even if our clinical trials for simufilam are completed as planned, we cannot be certain that their results will support the safety and efficacy sufficient to obtain regulatory approval.

Clinical results observed in our open-label study with simufilam is not regulatory evidence of drug safety or efficacy.

Data results from our open-label safety study do not constitute, and should not be interpreted as, regulatory evidence of safety or efficacy for simufilam in Alzheimer’s disease. Rigorous evidence for drug safety and efficacy is derived from one or more large, randomized, placebo-controlled studies. The open-label design and size of this study may introduce clinical or statistical bias or may generate results that may not fully distinguish between drug effects and random variation. Different methods of statistical analysis on clinical data from the same study may lead to objectively different numerical results. These and other statistical and clinical features of our open-label study add complexity or limitations to the scope of data interpretation.

We may encounter substantial delays in our clinical studies or may not be able to conduct or complete our clinical studies on the timelines we expect, if at all.

Clinical testing is expensive, time consuming, and subject to uncertainty. We cannot guarantee that any clinical studies will be conducted as planned, enroll patients as planned or be completed on schedule, if at all. Moreover, even after our studies begin, safety or other issues may arise that could suspend or terminate such clinical studies. A failure of one or more clinical studies can occur at any stage of testing, and our future clinical studies may not be successful. Events that may prevent successful or timely initiation or completion of clinical studies include:

inability to generate sufficient or necessary preclinical, toxicology, or other in vivo or in vitro data to support the initiation or continuation of clinical studies or to support the filing of a New Drug Application for simufilam;

delays in confirming target engagement, patient selection, or other relevant biomarkers to be utilized in preclinical and clinical product candidate development;

delays in reaching a consensus with regulatory agencies on study design;

delays in reaching an agreement on acceptable terms with prospective and clinical study sites, the terms of which can be subject to extensive negotiation and may vary significantly among different clinical study sites;

delays in identifying and recruiting suitable clinical investigators;

delays in obtaining required IRB approval for each clinical study site;

 a new safety finding that presents unreasonable risk to clinical study participants;

a negative finding from an inspection of our CRO, clinical study operations or study sites; or

 

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the finding that the investigational protocol or plan is deficient to meet its stated objectives;

delays in identifying, recruiting, and enrolling suitable patients to participate in our clinical studies, and delays caused by patients withdrawing from clinical studies, or failing to return for post-treatment follow-up;

delays caused by disease epidemics or pandemics, such as COVID-19;

difficulty collaborating with patient groups and investigators;

failure by our CRO or other third parties, or us to adhere to clinical study requirements;

failure to perform in accordance with FDA’s or any other regulatory authority’s Code of Good Clinical Practice (GCPs) requirements, or other regulatory guidelines in other countries;

occurrence of adverse events associated with the product candidate that are viewed to outweigh its potential benefits;

changes in regulatory requirements and guidance that require amending or submitting new clinical protocols;

changes in the standard of care on which a clinical development plan was based, which may require new or additional studies;

the cost of clinical studies of our product candidates being greater than we anticipate;

clinical studies of our product candidates producing negative or inconclusive results, which may result in our deciding, or regulators requiring us, to conduct additional clinical studies or abandon product development programs; and

delays in manufacturing, testing, releasing, validating, or importing/exporting sufficient stable quantities of our product candidates for use in clinical studies or the inability to do any of the foregoing.

Any inability to successfully initiate or complete clinical studies could result in additional costs to us or impair our ability to generate revenue. In addition, if we make manufacturing or formulation changes to our product candidates, we may be required to, or we may elect, to conduct additional studies to bridge our modified product candidates to earlier versions. Clinical study delays could also shorten any periods during which our products have patent protection and may allow our competitors to bring products to market before we do, which could impair our ability to successfully commercialize our product candidates and may harm our business and results of operations.

We may in the future advance product candidates into clinical studies and terminate such studies prior to their completion, which could adversely affect our business.

Delays in the completion of any clinical study of our product candidates will increase our costs, slow down our product candidate development and approval process and delay, or potentially jeopardize our ability to commence product sales and generate revenue. In addition, many of the factors that cause, or lead to, a delay in the commencement or completion of clinical studies may also ultimately lead to the denial of regulatory approval of our product candidates.

The FDA or other regulatory agency may put a clinical hold on our clinical studies and our business will suffer.

A clinical hold is an order issued by FDA or other regulatory agency to suspend an ongoing clinical trial, typically due to newly identified deficiencies with our studies or our drug candidate. For example, we are aware that in 2022, FDA placed clinical holds on drug candidates for Alzheimer’s disease from two competitors, Cortexzyme Inc. and Denali Therapeutics Inc. The grounds for imposition of a clinical hold are complex, variable and somewhat arbitrary. If FDA imposes a clinical hold on us, no new patients may be enrolled and study patients already in a study may be taken off our drug candidate unless treatment is specifically permitted by FDA in the interest of patient safety. If we are issued a clinical hold, FDA will expect us to address the cited deficiencies and submit a detailed, written response. A clinical hold may require us to spend significant resources over many months to address the root causes of FDA’s concerns. We may not find and successfully address such root causes, which could adversely affect our business. Our response may not be adequate to lift such clinical hold, or we may disagree with FDA’s assessments of deficiencies. If we are on clinical hold for 1 year or longer, the FDA may consider our

 

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IND for simufilam to fall into Inactive Status, which may result in termination of the clinical program for simufilam. To the extent we are not successful in lifting an FDA clinical hold, our results of operations and business will be materially adversely affected.

If physicians and patients do not accept and use our drugs, we will not achieve sufficient product revenues and our business will suffer.

Even if FDA approves our drugs, physicians and patients may not accept and use them. Acceptance and use of our drugs will depend on a number of factors including:

when the drug is launched into the market and related competition;

approved label claims;

perceptions by members of the healthcare community, including physicians, about the safety and effectiveness of our drugs;

perceptions by physicians regarding the cost-benefit of our product candidates;

published studies demonstrating the cost effectiveness of our drugs relative to competing products;

availability of reimbursement for our products from government or healthcare payers;

effectiveness of marketing and distribution efforts by us and other licensees and distributors.

Because we expect to rely on sales generated by our current lead product candidates for substantially all of our revenues for the foreseeable future, the failure of any of these drugs to find market acceptance would harm our business and could require us to seek additional financing.

We may not be successful in developing our product candidates in neurodegeneration.

Our product candidates in neurodegeneration are still in development and will take several more years to develop and must undergo extensive clinical and scientific validations. Even if we are successful in developing any of our product candidates through clinical and scientific validation, we may not be able to develop a drug or a diagnostic that:

meets applicable regulatory standards, in a timely manner or at all;

successfully competes with other technologies and tests;

avoids infringing the proprietary rights of others;

is adequately reimbursed by third-party payors;

can be performed at commercial levels or at reasonable cost; or

can be successfully marketed.

To the extent we are not successful in developing our new product candidates in neurodegeneration, our results of operations and business will be materially adversely affected.

Interim, “top-line” and preliminary data from our clinical trials that we announce or publish from time to time are likely to change as more patient data become available and are subject to audit and verification procedures that could result in material changes in the final dataset.

From time to time, we may publish “top-line” or preliminary data from our clinical trials. We also make assumptions, estimations, calculations and conclusions as part of our analyses of data, and we may not have received or had the opportunity to fully and carefully evaluate all data. As a result, the top-line results that we report may differ from future results of the same studies, or different conclusions or considerations may qualify such results, once additional data have been received and fully evaluated. Such data from clinical trials may materially change as more study data become available. Preliminary or “top-line” data also remain subject to audit and verification procedures that may result in the final data being materially different from the preliminary data we previously published. As a result, preliminary top-line data should be viewed with caution until the final data is available. Differences between preliminary or top-line data and final data could significantly harm our business prospects and may cause the trading price of our common stock to fluctuate significantly.

Furthermore, other parties, including regulatory agencies, may not accept or agree with our assumptions, estimates, calculations, conclusions or analyses or may interpret or weigh the importance of data differently, which could impact the value of the particular program, the approvability or commercialization of the particular product candidate and our company in general. In addition, the information we choose to publicly disclose regarding a particular study or clinical trial is typically selected from a more extensive amount of available information. You or others may not agree with what we determine is the material or otherwise appropriate information to include in our disclosure, and any information we determine not to disclose

 

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may ultimately be deemed significant with respect to future decisions, conclusions, views, activities or otherwise regarding a particular product candidate or our business. If the preliminary or topline data that we report differ from late, final or actual results, or if others, including regulatory authorities, disagree with the conclusions reached, our ability to obtain approval for, and commercialize our product candidates may be harmed, which could harm our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects.

We are conducting Phase 3 clinical trials for our lead product candidates outside the United States, and the FDA and applicable foreign regulatory authorities may not accept ex-U.S. data from such trials.

We are enrolling patients into our Phase 3 clinical trials in part outside of the U.S. The acceptance of data from clinical trials conducted outside the U.S. or another jurisdiction by the FDA or applicable foreign regulatory authority may be subject to certain conditions or restrictions. In cases where data from foreign clinical trials are intended to serve as the basis for marketing approval in the U.S., the FDA may not approve the application on the basis of foreign data unless (i) the data are generally applicable to the U.S. population and medical practices, and (ii) the trials were performed by clinical investigators of recognized competence and pursuant to cGCP regulations. There can be no assurance that the FDA or any applicable foreign regulatory authority will accept data from patients enrolled in our Phase 3 program outside of the U.S. If the FDA or any applicable foreign regulatory authority does not accept such data, it may result in the need for additional trials, which would be costly and time-consuming and delay aspects of our business plan, and which may result in our lead product candidate not receiving approval or clearance for commercialization in the U.S. or elsewhere.

We currently have no in-house capabilities to manufacture or commercialize our product candidates and we rely on third-party commercial drug manufacturers for clinical drug supplies. If we are unable to develop our own manufacturing, sales, marketing and distribution capabilities, or if we are not successful in contracting with third parties for these services on favorable terms, or at all, our product revenues could be adversely impacted.

We rely on various third parties to manufacture, fill, label, store, test and ship our product candidates. We plan to continue to outsource formulation, manufacturing and related activities. These suppliers must comply with cGMP regulations enforced by FDA and other government agencies, and are subject to ongoing periodic unannounced inspection, including preapproval inspections by FDA and corresponding state and foreign government agencies to ensure strict compliance with cGMP and other standards. These manufacturers may subsequently be stopped from producing, manufacturing, filling, labeling, storing, testing and shipping our product candidates due to their non-compliance with federal, state or local regulations. We do not have control over our suppliers’ compliance with these regulations and standards and we cannot control decisions by our suppliers that affect their ability or willingness to continue to supply us on acceptable terms, or at all.

Disputes in the past have arisen with some of these third parties with respect to fulfilling certain conditions and obligations. There can be no guarantee that such disputes will not arise again in the future, which may lead to termination of an agreement. If an agreement is terminated, we would not be able to commercialize our product candidates until another manufacturer is identified and we have entered into a manufacturing agreement with such manufacturer. We may not be able to replace a commercial supplier on commercially reasonable terms, or at all. Replacing any of our commercial suppliers would be expensive and time consuming. Failure by any of our suppliers to perform as expected could delay or prevent the commercialization or potential regulatory approval of our product candidates for an extended period of time, result in shortages, cost overruns or other problems and would materially harm our business.

We currently have no sales, marketing or distribution capabilities. We have not established commercial strategies regarding any of our product candidates. In order to commercialize our products, if any are approved by FDA, we will either have to develop such capabilities internally or collaborate with third parties who can perform these services for us.

If we decide to commercialize any of our drugs ourselves, we may not be able to

hire and retain the necessary experienced personnel;

build sales, marketing and distribution operations in a cost-effective manner which are capable of successfully launching new drugs;

obtain access to adequate numbers of physicians to prescribe our products; or

generate sufficient product revenues.

In addition, establishing such operations on our own will take time and involve significant expense. If our commercial operations lack complementary products, we may not be able to compete in a cost-effective manner with competitors with more products to sell. If we engage third-party collaborators to perform any commercial operations, our future revenues may depend significantly upon the performance of those collaborators.

 

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If we decide to enter into new co-promotion or other licensing arrangements with third parties, we may be unable to locate acceptable collaborators because the number of potential collaborators is limited and because of competition from others for similar alliances. Even if we are able to identify one or more acceptable new collaborators, we may not be able to enter into any collaborative arrangements on favorable terms, or at all.

In addition, due to the nature of the market for our product candidates, it may be necessary for us to license all or substantially all of our product candidates to a single collaborator, thereby eliminating our opportunity to commercialize these other products independently. If we enter into any such new collaborative arrangements, our revenues are likely to be lower than if we marketed and sold our products ourselves.

In addition, any revenues we receive would depend upon our collaborators’ efforts which may not be adequate due to lack of attention or resource commitments, management turnover, change of strategic focus, business combinations or other factors outside of our control. Depending upon the terms of our collaboration, the remedies we have against an under-performing collaborator may be limited. If we were to terminate the relationship, it may be difficult or impossible to find a replacement collaborator on acceptable terms, or at all.

The majority of Phase 3 studies in Alzheimer’s disease have failed.

Despite billions of dollars invested by NIH and the biopharmaceutical industry in research programs to develop novel therapeutics for Alzheimer’s disease, the FDA has not approved any new drugs for Alzheimer’s disease since 2003, except, however, that in June 2021, aducanumab (Biogen, Inc) and in January 2023 lecanumab (Eisai Pharmaceuticals) both received approval from FDA for the treatment of Alzheimer’s disease using the accelerated approval pathway. Since 2003, many new types and classes of drugs have been developed and tested in Alzheimer’s disease, including monoclonal antibodies, gamma secretase modulators and inhibitors, β-site amyloid precursor protein cleaving enzyme (BACE) inhibitors, receptor for advanced glycation end-products (RAGE) inhibitors, nicotinic partial agonists and allosteric modulators, serotonin subtype receptor (5HT6) antagonists, and others. Virtually all of these scientific programs have failed in Phase 3 testing, or earlier testing.

We may not be successful in our efforts to expand our technology or product candidates in other indications.

Our drug development strategy is to clinically test and seek regulatory approval for our product candidates in Alzheimer’s disease dementia, our primary indication. We may expand our research efforts outside of this primary indication and into other areas of clinical medicine based on genetic, biological or mechanistic overlap with the primary indication. Conducting clinical studies for additional indications for our product candidates will require substantial technical, financial and human resources and is prone to the inherent risks of failure in drug development. We cannot provide any assurance that we will be successful in our effort to expand our technology or our product candidates in additional indications, even if we obtain approval for our product candidate in Alzheimer’s disease.

If we fail to successfully identify and develop additional product candidates, our commercial opportunity will be limited to Alzheimer’s disease or other neurodegenerations.

Identifying, developing, obtaining regulatory approval for, and commercializing additional product candidates requires substantial expertise and funding and is prone to the risks of failure inherent in drug development. We cannot provide any assurance that we will be able to successfully identify or acquire additional product candidates, advance any additional product candidates through the development process, or assemble sufficient resources to identify, acquire, or develop additional product candidates. If we are unable to successfully identify, acquire, develop, and commercialize additional product candidates, our commercial opportunity may be limited.

Early indications of safety and tolerability from our small clinical studies with simufilam may not predict the results of later studies.

Results of our small, “first-in-human” Phase 1 study was designed to assess the initial safety characteristics of simufilam in healthy human volunteers and this study was not designed to, and did not, evaluate safety, tolerability and efficacy of simufilam in patients. Additional large, well-controlled, multi-dose studies will be required to evaluate the safety, tolerability and efficacy of simufilam to treat patients with any indication, including Alzheimer’s disease. There can be no assurance that such future studies will demonstrate the safety, tolerability or efficacy of simufilam.

Our Phase 2 clinical studies with simufilam were designed to assess the safety characteristics of simufilam in patients. Our Phase 2 program was not designed to, and did not, evaluate large-scale or long-term safety, tolerability and efficacy of

 

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simufilam in patients. Additional large, well-controlled, multi-dose studies will be required to evaluate the safety, tolerability and efficacy of simufilam to treat patients with any indication, including Alzheimer’s disease. There can be no assurance that such future studies will demonstrate the safety, tolerability or efficacy of simufilam. The failure of simufilam to show safety, tolerability or efficacy in any future clinical studies would significantly harm our business.

We have never obtained FDA approval for a diagnostic test and we may not be able to secure such approval in a timely manner or at all.

We are developing an investigational blood-based diagnostic test for Alzheimer’s disease, called SavaDx, which will require FDA approval prior to commercialization. Our diagnostic product candidate, marketing, sales and development activities and manufacturing processes are subject to extensive and rigorous regulation by FDA pursuant to the FDCA, by comparable agencies in foreign countries, and by other regulatory agencies and governing bodies. Under the FDCA, a diagnostic must receive FDA clearance or approval before it can be commercially marketed in the U.S. The process of obtaining marketing approval or clearance from FDA or by comparable agencies in foreign countries for new products could:

take a significant period of time;

require the expenditure of substantial resources;

involve rigorous preclinical testing, as well as increased post-market surveillance;

require changes to products; and

result in limitations on the indicated uses of products.

If we do not compete effectively with scientific and commercial competitors, we may not be able to successfully develop our diagnostic test for Alzheimer’s disease.

The field of clinical laboratory testing is highly competitive. Diagnostic tests that are developed are characterized by rapid technological change. Our competitors in the U.S. and abroad are numerous and include, among others, major diagnostic companies, reference laboratories, molecular diagnostic firms, universities and other research institutions. Most of our potential competitors have considerably greater financial, technical, marketing and other resources than we do, which may allow these competitors to discover important biological markers and determine their function before we do. We could be adversely affected if we do not discover proteins or biomarkers and characterize their function, develop diagnostic and pharmaceutical and clinical services based on these discoveries, obtain required regulatory and other approvals and launch these tests and their related services before our competitors. We also expect to encounter significant competition with respect to any diagnostic tests that we may develop or commercialize. Those companies that bring to market new diagnostic tests before we do may achieve a significant competitive advantage in marketing and commercializing their tests. We may not be able to develop additional diagnostic tests successfully and we may not obtain or enforce patents, if any, covering these tests that provide protection against our competitors. Moreover, our competitors may succeed in developing diagnostic tests that circumvent our technologies or tests. Furthermore, our competitors may succeed in developing technologies or tests that are more effective or less costly than those developed by us or that would render our technologies or tests less competitive or obsolete. We expect competition to intensify in the fields in which we are involved as technical advances in these fields occur and become more widely known and changes in intellectual property laws generate challenges to our intellectual property position.

We will need to develop our own proprietary antibodies or find alternative approaches that do not involve antibodies to advance our SavaDx and our diagnostic program.

To date, most of our tests with SavaDx relied on the use of commercially available antibodies, which are complex molecules that can recognize and bind to an intended protein. Commercially available antibodies present certain technical flaws, such as improper validation, significant batch-to-batch variations or inconsistent storage, any of which can jeopardize our studies and experiments. Because antibody underperformance can be a significant drain on time and resources, we have attempted to develop and validate our own, fit-for-purpose antibody for use with SavaDx. The complexity of developing our own antibody gives rise to many technical issues that are challenging to solve, and we cannot be certain that we will be able to successfully complete any of these activities, in which case our program may be harmed. We are also evaluating an alternative approach to detect Alzheimer’s disease that does not involve antibodies. The complexity of such an alternative approach also gives rise to many technical issues that are challenging to solve. We cannot be certain that we will be able to successfully complete the development of a detection system for Alzheimer’s disease that does or does not involve antibodies.

 

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We have concentrated a substantial portion of our research and development efforts on the treatment and detection of Alzheimer’s disease, an area of research that has seen significant failure rates. Further, our product candidates are based on new scientific approaches and novel technology, which makes it difficult to predict the time and cost of product candidate development.

We focus substantially all of our research and development efforts on addressing neurodegenerations, such as Alzheimer’s disease. Collectively, efforts by biopharmaceutical companies in the field of neurodegenerative diseases have seen many failures and limited success in drug development. Our future success is highly dependent on the successful development of our product candidates for treating Alzheimer’s disease. Developing and, if approved, commercializing our product candidates for treatment of Alzheimer’s disease subjects us to many challenges, including obtaining regulatory approval from FDA and other regulatory authorities who have only a limited set of precedents to rely on. We cannot be sure that our approach will yield satisfactory therapeutic products that are safe and effective, scalable, or profitable.

Our Phase 2 clinical studies with simufilam in patients with Alzheimer’s disease are generally not designed to show a statistically meaningful difference in cognition or other health functions between those patients who receive placebo and those who receive drug.

Clinical research data is often analyzed with statistical probability (p-value) to address the question of whether a clinical observation is related to a treatment effect, a random effect or something else. This, in turn, requires a clinical study to incorporate a sufficiently large sample patient population to infer the appropriate statistical analysis. By design, our Phase 2 clinical studies with simufilam generally do not include a sufficiently large patient population to generate statistical probability on measures of cognition or other health functions. This feature may make it difficult for investors to properly interpret whether clinical observations in those Phase 2 studies with simufilam are important or meaningful. Conversely, our clinical studies may generate statistically significant data (i.e., p<0.05) on exploratory biomarkers, or other endpoints, that have unknown or no clinical importance. In general, the distinction between statistically significant data and clinically meaningful data is a complex area of research that continues to evolve and may be subject to differences of opinion among scientists, clinicians, biostatisticians and other professionals, as well as among government regulators.

In our open-label study, we observed apparent differences in treatment effects by stage of disease. These observations may or may not replicate in any of our subsequent clinical studies.

Alzheimer’s dementia is a progressive, degenerate disease. Severity of disease is typically assessed by stage of disease progression, a continuum that ranges from, approximately, mild cognitive impairment (MCI), to early stage, to mild, to moderate and finally to severe disease. Over time, cognition progressively worsens in the mild-to-moderate stages of Alzheimer’s as the disease takes its toll. However, we do not have a clear understanding of how our drug candidate simufilam impacts patients by stage of disease, if at all. For example, in our open-label study, we observed apparent differences in treatment effects by stage of disease. These observations may or may not replicate in any of our subsequent clinical studies.

We may encounter difficulties enrolling patients in our clinical studies, and our clinical development activities could thereby be delayed or otherwise adversely affected.

The timely completion of clinical studies in accordance with their protocols depends, among other things, on our ability to enroll enough patients who remain in the study until its conclusion. We may experience difficulties in patient enrollment in our clinical studies for a variety of reasons, including:

 

the size and severity of disease in the patient population;

the patient eligibility criteria defined in the protocol, including biomarker-driven identification and/or certain highly-specific criteria related to stage of disease progression, which may limit the patient populations eligible for our clinical studies to a greater extent than competing clinical studies for the same indication that do not have biomarker-driven patient eligibility criteria;

the size of the study population required for analysis of the trial’s primary endpoints;

the design of our study protocol;

our ability to recruit clinical study investigators with the appropriate competencies and experience;

competing clinical studies for similar therapies or targeting patient populations meeting our patient eligibility criteria;

clinicians’ and patients’ perceptions as to the potential advantages and side effects of the product candidate being studied in relation to other available therapies and product candidates;

 

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our ability to obtain and maintain patient consents;

physicians’ patient referral practices that are out of our control;

our ability to adequately monitor patients and their caregivers during and after treatment; and

the risk that patients enrolled in clinical studies will not complete such studies, for any reason.

Our clinical studies may fail to demonstrate substantial evidence of the safety and efficacy of our product candidates, which would prevent, delay, or limit the scope of regulatory approval and commercialization.

Before obtaining regulatory approvals for any of our product candidates, we must demonstrate through lengthy, complex, and expensive preclinical experiments and clinical studies that our product candidates are both safe and effective for use in an intended population. Each product candidate must demonstrate an adequate risk versus benefit profile in its intended patient population and for its intended use.

Clinical testing is expensive and can take many years to complete, and its outcome is inherently uncertain. Failure can occur at any time during the clinical study process. The results of preclinical studies of our product candidates may not be predictive of the results of early-stage or later-stage clinical studies, and results of early clinical studies of our product candidates may not be predictive of the results of later-stage clinical studies. The results of clinical studies in one set of patients or disease indications may not be predictive of those obtained in another. In some instances, there can be significant variability in safety or efficacy results between different clinical studies of the same product candidate due to numerous factors, including changes in study procedures set forth in protocols, differences in the size and type of the patient populations, changes in and adherence to the dosing regimen, and other clinical study protocols and the rate of dropout among clinical study participants. Open-label extension studies may also extend the timing and cost of a clinical study substantially. Product candidates in later stages of clinical studies may fail to show the desired safety and efficacy profile despite having progressed through preclinical studies and initial clinical studies. Many companies in the biopharmaceutical industry have suffered significant setbacks in advanced clinical studies due to lack of efficacy or unacceptable safety issues, notwithstanding promising results in earlier studies. This is particularly true in neurodegenerative diseases, including Alzheimer’s disease, where failure rates historically have been higher than in many other disease areas. Most product candidates that begin clinical studies are never approved by regulatory authorities for commercialization.

We have limited experience in designing clinical studies in neurodegeneration and may be unable to design and execute a clinical study to support marketing approval. We cannot be certain that our current clinical studies or any other future clinical studies will be successful. Additionally, any safety concerns observed in any one of our clinical studies in our targeted indications could limit the prospects for regulatory approval of our product candidates in those and other indications, which could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, and results of operations.

In addition, even if such clinical studies are successfully completed, we cannot guarantee that FDA or foreign regulatory authorities will interpret the results as we do, and more studies could be required before we submit our product candidates for approval. To the extent that the results of the studies are not satisfactory to FDA or foreign regulatory authorities for support of a marketing application, we may be required to expend significant resources, which may not be available to us, to conduct additional studies in support of potential approval of our product candidates. Even if regulatory approval is secured for any of our product candidates, the terms of such approval may limit the scope and use of our product candidates, which may also limit its commercial potential.

If our drug candidate causes or contributes to a death or a serious injury before or after approval, we will be subject to medical reporting regulations, which can result in voluntary corrective actions or agency enforcement actions.

 

Our drug candidate in Alzheimer’s disease is aimed at elderly patients with dementia, some of whom may be frail due to advanced age or underlying health issues. Under FDA medical reporting regulations, we are required to report to the FDA information that our drug candidate has or may have caused or contributed to a death or serious injury. Any such serious adverse event involving our drug could result in future FDA action, such as an inspection, enforcement action or warning, or in more serious cases, a complete shutdown of our clinical program. In the context of our ongoing clinical trials, we report adverse events to the FDA in accordance with applicable national and local regulations. Any corrective action, whether voluntary or involuntary, and either pre- or post-market, needed to address any serious adverse events will require the dedication of our time and capital, distract management from operating our business, and may harm our reputation and financial results.

 

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The market opportunities for simufilam and SavaDx, if approved, may be smaller than we anticipate.

If our clinical development programs succeed, we expect to seek regulatory approval of simufilam and SavaDx for patients with Alzheimer’s disease. Our projections of the number of patients with Alzheimer’s disease is based on our beliefs and estimates. These estimates have been derived from a variety of outside sources, including scientific literature, patient foundations and market research, and may prove to be incorrect. The actual number of patients may turn out to be lower than expected. Additionally, the potential patient population for our current programs or future product candidates may be limited. Even if we obtain regulatory approval and capture significant market share for any product candidate, the potential target populations may be smaller than anticipated, and we may never achieve profitability without obtaining marketing approval for additional indications.

We face significant competition in an environment of rapid technological and scientific change, and there is a possibility that additional competitors may achieve regulatory approval before us or develop therapies that are safer, more advanced, or more effective than ours, any of which may harm our business operations.

Drug discovery and development is highly competitive. Moreover, the neurodegenerative field is characterized by intense and increasing competition, and a strong emphasis on intellectual property. We may face competition with respect to any of our product candidates that we seek to develop or commercialize in the future from major pharmaceutical companies, specialty pharmaceutical companies, and biotechnology companies worldwide. Potential competitors also include academic institutions, government agencies, and other public and private research organizations that conduct research, seek patent protection, and establish collaborative arrangements for research, development, manufacturing, and commercialization.

In addition to Biogen, Eisai and Eli Lilly, several large pharmaceutical and biotechnology companies are currently pursuing the development of products for the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases, including Alzheimer’s disease. Many of these current or potential competitors, either alone or with their strategic partners, have significantly greater financial resources and expertise in research and development, manufacturing, preclinical testing, conducting clinical studies, obtaining regulatory approvals, and marketing approved products than we do.

Our commercial opportunity could be reduced or eliminated if other competitors develop and commercialize products that are safer, are more effective, have fewer or less severe side effects, are more convenient, or are less expensive than any products that we may develop. Furthermore, currently approved products could be discovered to have application for treatment of neurodegenerative disease indications, which could give such products significant advantages over any of our product candidates. Competitors other than Biogen may also obtain FDA or other regulatory approval for their products more rapidly than we may obtain approval for ours, which could result in our competitors establishing a strong market position before we are able to enter the market. Additionally, products or technologies developed by our competitors may render our potential product candidates uneconomical or obsolete, and we may not be successful in marketing any product candidates we may develop against competitors.

In addition, we could face litigation or other proceedings with respect to the scope, ownership, validity, and/or enforceability of our patents relating to our competitors’ products and our competitors may allege that our products infringe, misappropriate, or otherwise violate their intellectual property. The availability of our competitors’ products could limit the demand, and the price we are able to charge, for any products that we may develop and commercialize.

Risks Related to Government Regulation and Other Legal Compliance Matters

Our financial condition and operating results could be adversely impacted by unfavorable results of legal proceedings, government investigations or allegations and other claims.

We are, and may in the future be, subject to various investigations and legal proceedings.

In recent years, there has been a trend of increasing government investigations, legal proceedings and law enforcement activities against companies and executives operating in our industry, including those arising from whistleblower programs operated by the SEC and DOJ and the qui tam provisions of the False Claims Act. For instance, we are currently managing inquiries from U.S. government agencies, as well as civil claims under federal and state laws, relating to and/or arising out of research and development of our product candidates, including grant applications, securities disclosures and other aspects of our business. New claims or inquiries may arise in the future.

In response to government document requests and other claims asserted against us, we established a comprehensive document retention policy that strictly governs how we handle, store and protect our documents and data. Failure to comply with our document retention policy would expose us to risk of enforcement actions and penalties under applicable laws.

 

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For additional information regarding legal proceedings, see "Item 8. Financial Information—8.A. Consolidated Statements and Other Financial Information—Legal Proceedings".

Legal proceedings are inherently unpredictable, and large judgments or penalties sometimes occur. As a consequence, we may in the future incur judgments or penalties that could involve large cash payments, including the potential repayment of amounts allegedly obtained improperly and other penalties, including enhanced damages. In addition, such proceedings may affect our reputation, create a risk of potential exclusion from government reimbursement or grant programs and may lead to additional civil litigation. As a result, having taken into account all relevant factors, we may in the future enter into settlements of such claims without bringing them to final legal adjudication by courts or other such bodies, despite having potentially significant defenses against them, in order to limit the risks they pose to our business and reputation. Such settlements may require us to pay significant sums of money and to enter into corporate integrity or similar agreements intended to regulate company behavior for a period of years, which can be costly to operate under.

Any such judgments or settlements, and any accruals that we may take with respect to potential judgments or settlements, could have a material adverse impact on our business, financial condition or results of operations, as well as on our reputation.

While we maintain insurance coverage for certain types of claims, such insurance coverage may be insufficient to cover all losses or all types of claims that may arise. Even meritless claims could subject us to adverse publicity, hinder us from securing insurance coverage in the future or require us to incur significant legal costs. As a result, significant claims or legal proceedings to which we are a party could have a material adverse effect on our business, prospects, financial condition and results of operations.

Additional future litigation against us could be costly and time-consuming to defend.

Innovative drug development is highly litigious, and we may become subject, from time to time, to additional legal proceedings, claims and allegations that arise in the ordinary course of business or pursuant to governmental or regulatory enforcement activity. Regardless of merit, any lawsuits against us, individually or in the aggregate, may have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, results of operations or cash flows. In addition, any litigation to which we subsequently become a party might result in substantial costs and divert management's attention, time and resources, which might seriously harm our business, financial condition, results of operations and cash flows. Our insurance policies might not cover such claims, might not provide sufficient payments to cover all of the costs to resolve one or more such claims, and might not continue to be available on terms acceptable to us. In particular, any claim could result in potential liability for us if the claim is outside the scope of the indemnification agreement we have with our third-party partners, or our third-party partners do not abide by the indemnification agreement as required, or the liability exceeds the amount of any applicable indemnification limits or available insurance coverage. A claim brought against us that is uninsured or underinsured could result in unanticipated costs and could have a material adverse effect on our financial condition, results of operations, cash flows or reputation.

If we are ultimately unable to file for and obtain regulatory approval for our product candidates, we will be unable to generate product revenue and our business will be substantially harmed.

The time required to obtain approval by FDA and comparable foreign regulatory authorities is unpredictable, typically takes many years following the commencement of clinical studies, and depends upon numerous factors, including the type, complexity, and novelty of the product candidates involved. In addition, approval policies, regulations, or the type and amount of clinical data necessary to gain approval may change during the course of a product candidate’s clinical development and may vary among jurisdictions, which may cause delays in the approval or the decision not to approve an application. Regulatory authorities have substantial discretion in the approval process and may refuse to accept any application or may decide that our data are insufficient for approval and require additional preclinical, clinical, or other studies. We have not obtained regulatory approval for any product candidate, including our product candidates aimed at Alzheimer’s disease, and it is possible that none of our existing product candidates or any product candidates we may seek to develop in the future will ever obtain regulatory approval.

Applications for our product candidates could fail to receive regulatory approval in an initial or subsequent indication for many reasons, including but not limited to the following:

FDA or comparable foreign regulatory authorities may disagree with the design, implementation, or results of our clinical studies;

 

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FDA or comparable foreign regulatory authorities may determine that our product candidates are not safe and effective, only moderately effective or have undesirable or unintended side effects, toxicities, or other characteristics that preclude our obtaining marketing approval or prevent or limit commercial use;

the population studied in the clinical program may not be sufficiently broad or representative to assure efficacy and safety in the full population for which we seek approval;

we may be unable to demonstrate to FDA or comparable foreign regulatory authorities that a product candidate’s risk-benefit ratio when compared to the standard of care is acceptable;

FDA or comparable foreign regulatory authorities may disagree with our interpretation of data from preclinical studies or clinical studies;

the data collected from clinical studies of our product candidates may not be sufficient to support the submission of a new drug application (NDA), or other submission or to obtain regulatory approval in the United States or elsewhere;

FDA or comparable foreign regulatory authorities may fail to approve the manufacturing processes, test procedures, and specifications, or facilities of third-party manufacturers with which